Monday, November 28, 2022

Is Depression A Mental Disorder

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Government Of Canada’s Role

Unpacking Mental Illness: Major Depression

The Government of Canada works to help Canadians maintain and improve their mental health, including coping with depression. Within its jurisdiction, the Government of Canada works to:

  • Support research and its dissemination;
  • Strengthen the capacity of the primary health care, home care and acute care sectors to effectively deliver mental health programs and services;
  • Raise awareness through social marketing campaigns;
  • Conduct surveillance on mental health trends in the population.

In 2007, the federal government provided funding to establish and support the Mental Health Commission of Canada to lead the development of a national mental health strategy, create a knowledge exchange centre and reduce the stigma about mental illness.

Research Into Positive Traits

Possible positive traits of ADHD are a new avenue of research, and therefore limited. Studies are being done on whether ADHD symptoms could potentially be beneficial.

A 2020 review found that creativity may be associated with ADHD symptoms, particularly and quantity of creative achievements, but not with the disorder of ADHD itself â i.e. it has not been found in patients diagnosed with the disorder, only in patients with subclinical symptoms or those that possess traits associated with the disorder. Divergent thinking is the ability to produce creative solutions which differ significantly from each other and consider the issue from multiple perspectives. Those with ADHD symptoms could be advantaged in this form of creativity as they tend to have diffuse attention, allowing rapid switching between aspects of the task under consideration; flexible , allowing them to remember and use more distantly-related ideas which is associated with creativity; and impulsivity, which causes people with ADHD symptoms to consider ideas which others may not have. However, people with ADHD may struggle with , which is a process of creativity that requires sustained effort and consistent use of executive functions to weed out solutions which aren’t creative from a single area of inquiry. People with the actual disorder often struggle with executive functioning.

How Can I Help A Loved One

When someone you love is diagnosed with depression or bipolar disorder, you may wonder how you can really help. You can offer support in different ways: you can offer emotional support or practical support to help make the journey less daunting. You can also help a loved one watch for signs of relapse or other difficulties, which is an important part in maintaining wellness.

People who experience an episode of depression may have thoughts of ending their life. This is a sign that a loved one needs extra support. If you believe that a loved one is in danger, dont hesitate to call 911 or your local crisis line.

Here are some tips for supporting someone you love:

  • Learn more about the illness and listen to your loved one so you have a better understanding of their experiences.
  • Someone who experiences an episode of depression may want to spend time alone or act out in frustration, and this can hurt other peoples feelings. These are just symptomsit isnt about you.
  • Ask your loved one how you can help. Think about practical help with day-to-day tasks, too.
  • Make sure your expectations are realistic. Recovery takes time and effort. It means a lot when you recognize your loved ones work towards wellness, regardless of the outcome.
  • Make your own boundaries, and talk about behaviour you arent willing to deal with.
  • Seek support for yourself and think about joining a support group for loved ones. If family members are affected by a loved ones illness, consider family counselling.

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Natural Selection And Evolution

Mutations alter an organism’s genotype and occasionally this causes different phenotypes to appear. Most mutations have little effect on an organism’s phenotype, health, or reproductive . Mutations that do have an effect are usually detrimental, but occasionally some can be beneficial. Studies in the fly suggest that if a mutation changes a protein produced by a gene, about 70 percent of these mutations will be harmful with the remainder being either neutral or weakly beneficial.

studies the distribution of genetic differences within populations and how these distributions change over time. Changes in the in a population are mainly influenced by , where a given allele provides a selective or reproductive advantage to the organism, as well as other factors such as , , , and .

Over many generations, the genomes of organisms can change significantly, resulting in . In the process called , selection for beneficial mutations can cause a species to evolve into forms better able to survive in their environment. New species are formed through the process of , often caused by geographical separations that prevent populations from exchanging genes with each other.

Organisms were chosen, in part, for convenienceâshort generation times and easy made some organisms popular genetics research tools. Widely used model organisms include the gut bacterium , the plant , baker’s yeast , the nematode , the common fruit fly , and the common house mouse .

Health Literacy Is Incredibly Important Yet Uncommon

Infographic: 1 in 20 suffers from depression; know how to ...

Despite the global rates of mental illness, many still dont understand what mental illness or mental health mean. For example, a 2015 study of working-age adults in the United Kingdom found that about 61% of respondents had a poor understanding of mental health conditions, symptoms, and treatments.

This lack of health literacy, the study said, could have a negative impact on the ability of those in need to get help and make informed decisions about managing their conditions. Based on studies like this, health experts have led efforts to boost mental health literacy and increase awareness and understanding of mental illness.

The thing with all mental health disorders is that none of them define the entire person. Although their symptoms might impair their ability to do things others are able to do, they still have areas of strength and competence. Whenever we talk about health versus illness, its always important to remember this. Dr. Christopher Palmer

Poor mental health literacy also contributes to the problem of mental health stigma. Those who do not understand mental health or mental illness often hold negative and harmful attitudes toward those with psychiatric issues. These attitudes lead to shame, anger, and feelings of worthlessness.

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What Causes Major Depression

The exact cause of major depression is unknown. But there are many factors that play a role in the development of the disorder.

People with a blood relative with depression are more likely to also develop it. Additionally, physiological and chemical changes in the brain have been found in people who suffer from depression. What those changes mean is still unclear, but research indicates that irregularities in brain chemistry affects the way it regulates mood and emotion, possibly causing instability of both.

Trauma and losses early in life have also been linked to the development of depression and major depressive disorder. Researchers believe that trauma causes subtle changes in brain chemistry and function that are related to symptoms of anxiety as well as depression.

Women also are subject to several physiological issues, such as hormonal changes due to menopause, pregnancy, or postpartum complications that can trigger the development of major depression.

Certain medical issues such as cancer, stroke, hypothyroidism, Cushings syndrome, diabetes, and other ailments that affect the endocrine system have also been associated with symptoms of major depression. The endocrine system produces hormones that regulate growth, metabolism, sleep, sexual function, and mood, among other things.

Other mental health disorders or medications for treatment of other disorders could also cause symptoms or lead to the development of major depression.

Schizophrenia And Other Psychoses

Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder, affecting 20 million people worldwide1. Psychoses, including schizophrenia, are characterized by distortions in thinking, perception, emotions, language, sense of self and behaviour. Common psychotic experiences include hallucinations and delusions . The disorder can make it difficult for people affected to work or study normally.

Stigma and discrimination can result in a lack of access to health and social services. Furthermore, people with psychosis are at high risk of exposure to human rights violations, such as long-term confinement in institutions.

Schizophrenia typically begins in late adolescence or early adulthood. Treatment with medicines and psychosocial support is effective. With appropriate treatment and social support, affected people can lead a productive life and be integrated in society. Facilitation of assisted living, supported housing and supported employment can act as a base from which people with severe mental disorders, including schizophrenia, can achieve numerous recovery goals as they often face difficulty in obtaining or retaining a place to live and normal employment.

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Natural Treatment For Depression

Traditional depression treatment uses a combination of prescription medication and counseling. But there are also alternative or complementary treatments you can try.

Its important to remember that many of these natural treatments have few studies showing their effects on depression, good or bad.

Likewise, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration doesnt approve many of the dietary supplements on the market in the United States, so you want to make sure youre buying products from a trustworthy brand.

Talk to your healthcare provider before adding supplements to your treatment plan.

What Causes Psychotic Depression

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The cause of this disorder cannot be determined exactly. However according to studies and observation most people suffering from this psychotic depression have some kind of history with mental health disorder.;;

Psychotic depression can also occur along with another mental health condition which might also be a reason for psychosis. Having depression for long without any ailment can lead to this condition.

Other reason could be combination of stress and genes that might affect a person in such a way that it hampers mental growth of the brain. It can be change in hormones and imbalance of hormones level in the body as well.;

A person may experience psychotic depression in a state where it affects the mental growth of the person. It is a severe mental health disorder that can affect the behaviour, mood and physical activities of the person. Psychotic depression can have symptoms like hallucination, disbelief, self-harm, confusion and delusion. The affected person loses his sense to determine the real and imaginary things and believes his perceptions to be a part of reality. This can becomes a serious illness and the person may not be able to recover if not given immediate professional medical help.

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Are Some People At Higher Risk

Yes – women, children and older adults.

Until age 65, twice as many women as men receive treatment for depression. The most vulnerable are single mothers with small children. Maybe women are taught to handle stresses differently than men. Or possibly female hormones contribute to higher rates of depression. Or women may be more likely to seek help. Men are trained to hide their feelings or drink to numb them. .

In children, depression can produce sadness, apathy, sleeping and eating problems. Sometimes symptoms are “masked” by behaviours like hyperactivity, delinquency and school problems or physical complaints. Severely depressed children may feel hopeless. Some think about or attempt suicide.

Many older men and women suffer from depressive illnesses. Poor diets, failing health, side effects from medicines, and the deaths of friends and loved ones – all can contribute. Their symptoms might be mistaken for dementia or natural signs of aging. Many older people deny feeling depressed and blame their symptoms on physical ailments.

Life Expectancy And The Risk Of Suicide

Depressed individuals have a shorter life expectancy than those without depression, in part because people who are depressed are at risk of dying of suicide. They also have a higher rate of dying from other causes, being more susceptible to medical conditions such as heart disease. Up to 60% of people who die of suicide have a mood disorder such as major depression, and the risk is especially high if a person has a marked sense of hopelessness or has both depression and borderline personality disorder. About 2â8% of adults with major depression die by suicide, and about 50% of people who die by suicide had depression or another mood disorder. The lifetime risk of suicide associated with a diagnosis of major depression in the US is estimated at 3.4%, which averages two highly disparate figures of almost 7% for men and 1% for women . The estimate is substantially lower than a previously accepted figure of 15%, which had been derived from older studies of people who were hospitalized.

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What Causes Mood Disorders

Mood disorders have no single cause, but several risk factors interact to produce the clinical symptoms of the various mood disorders. Individuals with depression and bipolar disorder often find a history of these disorders among immediate family members.Footnote 3;,Footnote 4;;Many different genes may act together and in combination with other factors to cause a mood disorder. Research is getting closer to identifying the specific genes that contribute to depression.

Who Is At Risk From Mental Disorders

Depression & Mental Disorders

Determinants of mental health and mental disorders include not only individual attributes such as the ability to manage one’s thoughts, emotions, behaviours and interactions with others, but also social, cultural, economic, political and environmental factors such as national policies, social protection, standards of living, working conditions, and community support.

Stress, genetics, nutrition, perinatal infections and exposure to environmental hazards are also contributing factors to mental disorders.

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How Can I Help Someone With Depression

Helping someone with depression might not look a single way. However, things that you can do to help include encouraging treatment, listening with compassion, helping the person suffering with daily tasks, be vigilant for signs of suicidal behavior, and to make sure you are caring for yourself, too.

Developmental Disorders Including Autism

Developmental disorder is an umbrella term covering intellectual disability and pervasive developmental disorders including autism. Developmental disorders usually have a childhood onset but tend to persist into adulthood, causing impairment or delay in functions related to the central nervous system maturation. They generally follow a steady course rather than the periods of remissions and relapses that characterize many mental disorders.

Intellectual disability is characterized by impairment of skills across multiple developmental areas such as cognitive functioning and adaptive behaviour. Lower intelligence diminishes the ability to adapt to the daily demands of life.

Symptoms of pervasive developmental disorders, such as autism, include impaired social behaviour, communication and language, and a narrow range of interests and activities that are both unique to the individual and are carried out repetitively. Developmental disorders often originate in infancy or early childhood. People with these disorders occasionally display some degree of intellectual disability.

The community at large has a role to play in respecting the rights and needs of people with disabilities.

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Different Types Of Depression

Your doctor may diagnose you with depression and say that its mild, moderate or severe depending on your symptoms and how severe they are. Or you may be diagnosed with a specific type of depression, such as:

  • dysthymia mild depression that lasts for several years
  • seasonal affective disorder depression that comes and goes in a seasonal pattern
  • postnatal depression depression that many parents experience after having a baby. Some people experience antenatal depression during pregnancy.

Who Is At High Risk For Depression

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Those most at risk for developing depression include women, the elderly, those with a personal or family history of depression, chronic stressors, those with other concurrent mental and physical health conditions, low socioeconomic status, and those taking medications that may cause depression, like birth control or some anxiety medications.

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Research Into Use Of Biomarkers For Diagnosis

Reviews of ADHD have noted that platelet expression, urinary , urinary , and urinary levels consistently differ between ADHD individuals and healthy controls. These measurements could potentially serve as diagnostic biomarkers for ADHD, but more research is needed to establish their diagnostic utility. Urinary and phenethylamine concentrations are lower in ADHD individuals relative to controls and the two most commonly prescribed drugs for ADHD, and , increase phenethylamine in treatment-responsive individuals with ADHD. Lower urinary phenethylamine concentrations are also associated with symptoms of inattentiveness in ADHD individuals. is not accurate enough to make an ADHD diagnosis.

What About Other Mental Illnesses And Depression

ADHD causes high energy and impulsive behavior. You may not be able to focus as well as youâd like. About 1 in 3 people with ADHD also have depression or have had it in the past.Â;

Sometimes it may be that you simply have both conditions. But in other cases, ADHD and its effects on your life are actually a cause of depression. And sometimes health care providers can misdiagnose depression in someone who simply has ADHD.

PTSD is when you have flashbacks, nightmares, or intrusive thoughts about a terrible event that you experienced. Think of the 9/11 terror attacks or a serious car accident or an act of violence.

Many people get past such events and are able to live healthy lives. People with PTSD may remain anxious and depressed for months or years afterward. Thatâs part of why PTSD often happens along with substance abuse, anxiety, and clinical depression.Â;

Agoraphobia is an anxiety disorder that makes people more afraid than is helpful in certain situations. You might have symptoms of a panic attack like nausea with fast breathing and heart rate. It can be especially bad in situations where thereâs no clear way to get away such as on public transportation or at a shopping mall. In serious cases, you might find it hard even to leave the house. Without treatment, agoraphobia can lead to depression.

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-V.

Fieve, R. Bipolar II, Rodale Books, 2006.

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