Why Call It Unipolar Then
Unipolar depression focuses mostly on the depressed mood state rather than the two-pronged presentation of bipolar depression, which includes the movement between the depressive state as well as the expansive or elevated mood state, explains Lovern Moseley, a licensed psychologist in Boston.
In other words, unipolar means theres one prolonged mood episode in this case, depression. This is in comparison with other mental health conditions, like bipolar disorder, which may lead you to experience changes in your mood, from depression to mania, an elevated mood state.
Symptoms Of Bipolar I Disorder
To meet the criteria of bipolar I disorder, a person must experience:
- one or more manic episodes lasting 7 days or more each, or
- shorter manic periods but with severe symptoms that require hospitalization
Many people with bipolar I disorder also experience depressive episodes or mixed episodes of manic and depressive symptoms.
Summary Of Findings Regarding Cognitive Styles During Remission
Some methodological issues must be attended to in the study of cognitive vulnerabilities in bipolar disorder, particularly variability in depression history. In studies that have failed to account for these issues, the evidence for negative cognitive styles among persons with remitted bipolar disorder is quite limited. However, when researchers have focused on just those persons with a history of depression or have used schema activation procedures, findings have suggested that bipolar disorder in remission is characterized by a depressive cognitive style.
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What Is Bipolar Affective Disorder
In layman’s terms, bipolar affective disorder popularly known as manic depression is a mental illness that mostly affects and causes intense shifts in moods.
People who suffer from this sickness witness mood swings, and changings in behavior and may often experience mania and depression.
It’s a disorder that mostly affects your thoughts, behaviors, etc. For instance, you might be sad this minute, and then within the next minute, you become angry.
In addition, know that bipolar is not a spiritual problem as some people mistake it sometimes, but it’s a mental disorder that will require you to take the right medication to be well again.
There are mostly 4 types of bipolar disorder.
Here is the list below:
How To Treat Bipolar Disorder
Bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder are both treatable. To diagnose bipolar disorder, your healthcare provider may carry out a physical exam and a mental health evaluation to learn more about your symptoms.
If appropriate, you may receive a mental health referral. Your mental health provider may talk to you about your symptoms and overall mental wellbeing. You may be asked about your personal or family history of bipolar disorder or other forms of mental illness.
You can also seek treatment from home with our online psychiatry service, which allows you to connect with a licensed psychiatry provider online for an evaluation.
Although theres no way to cure bipolar disorder, it can usually be treated with a combination of medication and psychotherapy.
The most common medications for treating bipolar disorder are mood stabilizers and atypical, or second-generation, antipsychotics. These medications work by preventing highs and lows that can occur with bipolar disorder and stopping delusions, hallucinations and paranoid thoughts.
In some cases, antidepressants are also used to treat bipolar depression.
If youre prescribed medication to treat bipolar disorder, make sure to use it exactly as instructed by your healthcare provider. Inform your healthcare provider if you develop any side effects from your medication.
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The Difference Between Unipolar And Bipolar Depression
Both bipolar depression and unipolar depression are considered to have genetic and environmental factors and they share many symptoms. So it’s easy to be confused over the differences between unipolar and bipolar depression as they often look similar. They share the symptoms of:
- sleep problems
But after that, unipolar depression and bipolar depression go off in very different directions.
The biology of these disorders is different, effective treatments are different, and in some respects, the symptoms are also different. Both forms of depression can be very severe and carry a risk of suicide. However, the underlying difference between bipolar depression vs depression is that people with bipolar depression also experience episodes of either mania or hypomania.
It is important to make this distinction because the treatments for the two depressions are very different. Failure to make an accurate diagnosis can result in treatments that are ineffective or that can even make bipolar disorder worse.
What Is Rapid Cycling
Some people with bipolar disorder develop rapid cycling where they experience four or more episodes of mania or depression within a 12-month period. Mood swings can occur very quickly, like a rollercoaster randomly moving from high to low and back again over a period of days or even hours. Rapid cycling can leave you feeling dangerously out of control and most commonly occurs if your bipolar disorder symptoms are not being adequately treated.
The different faces of bipolar disorder
Bipolar I Disorder This is the classic manic-depressive form of the illness, characterized by at least one manic episode or mixed episode. Usuallybut not alwaysBipolar I Disorder also involves at least one episode of depression.
Bipolar II Disorder In Bipolar II disorder, you dont experience full-blown manic episodes. Instead, the illness involves episodes of hypomania and severe depression.
Cyclothymia Cyclothymia is a milder form of bipolar disorder that consists of cyclical mood swings. However, the symptoms are less severe than full-blown mania or depression.
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How To Receive A Proper Diagnosis
There are no specific medical tests that determine if you have major depressive or bipolar disorder. Laboratory tests are sometimes ordered to rule out potential medical contributions to your symptoms. The diagnosis is made clinically, meaning mental health professionals will evaluate your current symptoms and psychiatric history to make the diagnosis.
For this reason, it can be helpful to work with a psychiatrist, psychotherapist, and general practitioner. This can increase the chances of getting a precise diagnosis and feeling relief sooner.
Summary Of Biological Facets
Genetic evidence suggests that one can disentangle the biological vulnerability to mania from that of depression. Comparisons of bipolar and unipolar depression are not common, but nonetheless, some data is available. Functional imaging studies suggest remarkable parallels in that both bipolar and unipolar depression are characterized by increased activation of the amygdala and other limbic regions when individuals are exposed to sad stimuli . At a neurotransmitter level, bipolar and unipolar depressive episodes are characterized by similar levels of dopamine and serotonin. When matched for number of recurrences, bipolar II depressive episodes are associated with comparable levels of norepinephrine to unipolar depressive episodes. Despite the many parallels, one set of striking differences emerges. Studies of both intracellular mechanisms and sleep deprivation suggest that people with a lifetime history of mania may have deficits in the ability to regulate neurotransmitters in the face of a challenge. Such regulatory deficits would be expected to be manifested in more rapid course changes, as well as increased vulnerability to environmental challenges. We turn towards a review of course parameters and psychosocial triggers next.
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Depression Signs And Symptoms
Within the first two weeks after diagnosis, patients with severe depressive illness are characterized by persistent low mood or a general lack of interest in almost all activities. Another set of possible signs and symptoms is:
- Nearly constant insomnia or hypersomnia.
- Anxiety and/or slowing of the bodys movement occur almost daily.
- Near-constant exhaustion or lack of energy.
- A sense of emptiness or an overwhelming sense of remorse
- Difficulty thinking or concentrating, and/or a lack of decision-making capacity
- Suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, or preparations for suicide are all examples of repeated suicidal thoughts.
Distress or impairment in social, vocational, or other aspects of functioning is caused by major depressive disorder symptoms. A history of manic or hypomanic symptoms is a requirement for a diagnosis of major depressive disorder.
What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Bipolar Disorder
Wondering how to know if you are bipolar? Signs and symptoms of bipolar disorder in men or women can range, depending on the state theyre in. Symptoms, when someone is in a manic state, can widely vary from what they experience when theyre in a depressive state. Severity of bipolar symptoms in either state can differ as well.
In a manic state, manic symptoms may include:
- Extreme overexcitement that lasts for a long time
- Inability to focus
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Rates Of Occurrence: Bipolar Vs Depression
Bipolar disorder statistics indicate that approximately 2.8 percent of adults are diagnosed with this condition. Bipolar disorder appears to be equally common in males and females. One study estimated the level of impairment from bipolar disorder ranging from moderate to severe, with the majority of people experiencing serious impairment.
Depression statistics indicate that major depressive disorder is more common than bipolar disorder. It is estimated that approximately 7.1 percent of adults experience a major depressive episode. Unlike bipolar disorder, major depression is more common among females than males, with a prevalence of 8.7 percent and 5.3 percent respectively. The rate of severe impairment is far lower for depression, though a majority of people with this disorder do experience severe impairment.
How To Tell The Difference Between Depression And Bipolar Disorder
Medically reviewed by Susan Vachon, PA-C on February 4, 2022
Depression and bipolar disorder are two serious mental health conditions that sometimes have similar symptoms. That said, they are two very different conditions. Its important to know the difference so you can get the correct treatment. What works for depression often doesnt work for bipolar disorder, and vice versa.
If youre looking for a little more help distinguishing your symptoms, well go over the main differences between depression and bipolar disorder below. But keep in mind, only a medical provider can diagnose you with either condition.
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Diagnosis Of Bipolar Disorder And Schizophrenia
Health professionals cannot use blood tests to diagnose bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. Instead, they will usually conduct a physical and psychological exam. During the exam, theyll ask about their patients personal or family history of mental disorders and inquire into what symptoms they may have been experiencing.
On occasion, a blood test, MRI, or CT scan of the brain will be needed to help rule out other conditions. At times, a drug and alcohol screening may also be necessary.
It may take several visits before the final determination is made. These visits are necessary and allow health professionals to get a full picture of a persons symptoms. They may also ask patients to keep a daily record of mood and sleep patterns. This will help them spot patterns that point to manic and depressive episodes.
Treatment for bipolar disorder and schizophrenia can involve both therapy and medication.
For bipolar disorder, psychotherapy may include:
- learning about changes in mood and how to effectively manage them
- educating family members about the disorder so they can be supportive and help address episodes
- exploring how to improve relationships with friends and co-workers
- understanding how to avoid possible triggers, such as stress or a lack of sleep
A healthcare professional may prescribe medication that controls mood and helps with other symptoms. Examples
In addition, anyone living with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia may consider:
Bipolar Disorder Vs Bipolar Affective Disorder: Is There A Difference Between Bipolar Disorder And Bipolar Affective Disorder
So recently, you’ve noticed some emotional ups and downs from time to time?
Maybe you often feel depressed, and you don’t seem to understand what is the matter with you?
You had visited your doctor, and he said it’s bipolar affective disorder?
Then don’t stress, we’ve got you covered.
After reading this post, you will be able to know what is bipolar affective disorder, the causes of your recent mood swing, and the proper steps you need to take to manage your depression.
Let’s get started.
I want you to feel heard and supported.
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The Difference Between Anger And Bipolar Anger
That said, the majority of people with bipolar disorder have experienced bipolar anger, a level of rage and hostility outside of the normal range. But, what exactly is bipolar anger? The Difference between Anger and Bipolar Anger Everyone gets angry. Anger is a normal human emotion and one that serves a valuable purpose.
Difference Between Major Depression And Bipolar Disorder
The main difference between the two is that depression is unipolar, meaning that there is no up period, but bipolar disorder includes symptoms of mania. To differentiate between the two disorders, it helps to understand the symptoms of each one. What is the difference between major depression and bipolar disorder quizlet? What is the difference between depression and bipolar disorder? Depression is
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Main Difference Bipolar Vs Manic Depression
Manic depression, which was formerly known as manic-depressive illness, is a type of Bipolar disorder. These two terms are often used interchangeably due to the confusion as to whether both the terms refer to the same illness or a different subcategory of the same illness. However, it is important to know how bipolar disorder and manic depression differ from each other. The main difference between bipolar and manic depression is that is manic depression is a severe episode of elevated moods followed by a period of depression whereas bipolar disorder also includes several other phases.
This article looks at,
1. What is Bipolar Disorder? Condition and Features, Symptoms, Etiology, Treatment Methods
2. What is Manic Depression? Condition and Features, Symptoms, Etiology, Treatment Methods
3. Difference Between Bipolar Disorder and Manic Depression
What Is Manic Depression
In older days, general Bipolar disorder was also known as manic depressive disorder, since it also has alternating periods of mania and depression. But, after the identification of subcategories under Bipolar disorder, Bipolar 1, which is characterized by full-blown episodes of mania alternating with periods of depression, began to be called as manic depression.
A person who is in a manic phase will indicate high feelings or euphoria, intense energy, and activity, restlessness, insomnia, agitation or irritability and tendency to engage in risky things recklessly, e.g., fast driving.
In contrast, a person who is in a depressive phase will feel hopeless and empty. He or she will have low energy, trouble sleeping or increased sleepiness, have trouble concentrating, poor insight, loss of appetite and tendency to develop feelings of suicide.
Additionally, people may also develop both mania and depression at once, in a single episode which is then referred to as an episode of mixed features where there will be extreme low moods which suddenly convert into euphoria.
Manic depression can be effectively treated with anti-psychotic and anti-depressants combined with psychotherapy, family-focused therapy, and cognitive behavioral therapy.
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Cognition During Depressive Episodes
When cognition is assessed during a depressive episode, bipolar disorder, comparable to unipolar disorder, is associated with a negative cognitive style, as measured by the Attributional Style Questionnaire , the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire , and the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale . Similar to patients with unipolar depression, patients with bipolar depression exhibit low self-esteem . In addition, attributions of failure are correlated with depression severity in both unipolar and bipolar depression . People with current episodes of unipolar and those with current bipolar depression appear to be comparable on measures of negative attributions about events and interference from negative words on the Stroop color naming task .
Studies Of Bipolar Depression And Unipolar Depression
In one large-scale, case-register study including data from 38000 participants internationally, the age of onset for bipolar disorder was 6 years younger than for that of unipolar depression . Nevertheless, the onset of depression was not examined separately.
Evidence from a retrospective study suggests that bipolar disorder is characterized by more depressive episodes than unipolar disorder is . Several studies suggest that bipolar depressions are shorter and quicker to onset than unipolar depression . Nevertheless, findings are not consistent in this area, with two large-scale studies finding no difference between unipolar and bipolar depression in episode length .
Cross-study differences in results might be due to changes in gender or episode length over time. Parallel with the gender ratio in unipolar depression, bipolar depression is more common among women than men . One retrospective study reported that the length of bipolar depressive episodes shortened over a 15-year period .
In sum, compared to unipolar depression, bipolar depression appears associated with a younger age of onset, more frequent episodes, and greater short-term mood variability. No consistent differences have been found between episode length, although some studies suggest a shorter episode length of bipolar depressions compared to unipolar depressions. Depression severity appears comparable between bipolar and unipolar disorders.
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What Is Unipolar Depression
To put it simply, unipolar depression is another name for major depressive disorder , also known as clinical depression.
This mood disorder is characterized by a persistent feeling of sadness or a lack of interest in things that you used to enjoy.
To consider a diagnosis of MDD, a health professional will assess whether you meet the criteria set in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition . This reference handbook helps mental health professionals make accurate diagnoses.
According to the DSM-5, to receive an MDD diagnosis, you must experience:
- symptoms for 2 weeks or longer
- episodes of depression or significant and persistent loss of interest, or both
- a change in the way you previously functioned
Diagnostic criteria also include experiencing 5 or more of the following symptoms in a 2-week period:
- feeling sad or irritable
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