Information For Carers Friends And Relatives
It can be very distressing if you are a carer, friend or relative of someone who experiences psychosis. You can get support.
How can I get support for myself?
You can do the following.
- Speak to your GP about medication and talking therapies for yourself.
- Speak to your relatives care team about family intervention. For more information about family intervention see the previous section above on this page.
- Speak to your relatives care team about a carers assessment.
- Ask for a carers assessment.
- Join a carers service. They are free and available in most areas.
- Join a carers support group for emotional and practical support. Or set up your own.
What is a carers assessment?NICE guidelines state that you should be given your own assessment through the community mental health team to work out what effect your caring role is having on your health. And what support you need. Such as practical support and emergency support.
The CMHT or the early intervention in psychosis team should tell you about your right to have a carers assessment through your local authority. To get a carers assessment you need to contact your local authority.
How do I get support from my peers?You can get peer support through carer support services or carers groups. You can search for local groups in your area by using a search engine such as Google. Or you can call our advice service on 0808 800 0525. They will search for you.
How can I support the person I care for?
You can do the following.
Childhood Trauma Linked To Schizophrenia
- University of Liverpool
- Researchers have found that children who have experienced severe trauma are three times as likely to develop schizophrenia in later life.
Researchers at the University have found that children who experience severe trauma are three times as likely to develop schizophrenia in later life.
The findings shed new light on the debate about the importance of genetic and environmental triggers of psychotic disorders. For many years research in mental health has focused on the biological factors behind conditions such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and psychotic depression, but there is now increasing evidence to suggest these conditions cannot be fully understood without first looking at the life experiences of individual patients.
The research, conducted by teams at Liverpool and Maastricht University in the Netherlands, is the first of its kind to bring together and analyse the findings from more than 30 years of studies looking at the association between childhood trauma and the development of psychosis. The researchers looked at more than 27,000 research papers to extract data from three types of studies those addressing the progress of children known to have experienced adversity studies of randomly selected members of the population and research on psychotic patients who were asked about their early childhood.
The Relationship Between Ptsd And Psychosis
Frank van Groen / LOOK-foto / Getty Images
Mental health experts describe post-traumatic stress disorder as consisting of four clusters of symptoms: re-experiencing symptoms, avoidance symptoms, negative changes in mood and brain function, and hyperarousal symptoms.
However, some mental health professionals believe that the experience of psychotic symptoms should be considered as an addition to that list. Symptoms of psychosis, such as hallucinations, often occur with symptoms of PTSD.
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Can Ptsd Bring On Schizophrenia
Recent findings: Psychotic symptoms typical of schizophrenia occur with a higher than expected frequency in PTSD. A large genome-wide association study has identified a collection of genes associated with PTSD, and these genes overlap with those identified as increasing the risk of developing schizophrenia.
Consequences Of Talking Or Not
Participants identified many outcomes related to talking or not about trauma. Those who had the opportunity to discuss trauma reported experiencing positive consequences both for themselves and others. Many participants said that although talking about trauma is hard, when they were able to do so they felt as if a weight had been lifted off their chest. Similarly, some people remarked that discussing past experiences offers a chance of releasing negative emotions that would normally bottle up and become negative energy. Walter acknowledges the difficulties of discussing trauma, but appreciates the benefits that might come from it:
I think its helpful… like, its not nice reliving past pain, but when you talk through it, when you can talk through it and work your way through it maybe, its better than just remembering stuff and going through it every time.
Participants also found value in sharing their stories to help others feeling less lonely and desperate, and reported experiencing positive feelings when they thought they had been useful to someone else. In this respect, participants noted that knowing that someone else went through similar events, experienced similar feelings and survived, could be inspirational. For example, a participant said that the reason why they agreed to participate in this research, was that they hoped that their story would reach more people in similar situations. Luca explains his motivation for sharing his story:
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Types Of Psychotic Symptoms
Psychotic symptoms can be divided into two groups: positive symptoms and negative symptoms. However, this doesn’t mean that some psychotic symptoms are good and some are bad.
Positive symptoms refer to an experience, such as hallucinations, while negative symptoms refer to the inability to show emotions, apathy, difficulties talking, and withdrawing from social situations and relationships.
Why Does Trauma Lead To Psychosis
Some believe that psychotic symptoms are a coping mechanism for the traumatic event one has experienced. Award-winning author and public speaker Eleanor Longden, who shared her experience with schizophrenia in a widely publicized TED Talk, feels this way. She says the voices she hears inside her head are a survivors strategy, a sane reaction to insane circumstances.
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When A Parent Has Experienced Psychosis
… What kids want to know
- Guides & Publications
- When a parent has experienced psychosis … What kids want to know
Children have a lot of questions when someone in their family is sick. When children don’t have answers to their questions, they tend to come up with their own, which can be incorrect and scary!
When a family member has had psychosis, it can easily become a secret that nobody talks about. All children need some explanation and support, geared to their age, to help them understand this disorder.Each parent and child’s first conversations about psychosis will be different. How you address the subject will depend on the child’s age and ability to manage the information-you know your child best. This brochure will help prepare you to take the first step in discussing this disorder with your child.
Dr Vivek Pratap Singh: The Best Psychiatrist In Patna
Talking about his qualifications, he pursued his MBBS from BP. Koirala Institute of Health Science. After that, he did MD from Pune.
Moreover, he is indeed a young and vibrant psychiatrist who treats his patient with love and care.
Recently he works in PMCH Hospital, Patna & along with that runs his organization Prataps Neuro & Child Psychiatry Center.
So, if you or anybody in your family is suffering from mental disorders, must consult Dr. Vivek Pratap Singh once.
He will be there to help you with his utmost efforts, also he has never left any stone unturned while giving the treatments to his patients.
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The Stress Vulnerability Model
However, its important to mention that while trauma may result in psychotic symptoms, many people experience traumatic incidents and are not diagnosed with psychosis or schizophrenia .
Lauren Cona, Clinical Program Director at Evolve Woodland Hills, a teen mental health treatment facility in Los Angeles, says the way to understand this is through the stress vulnerability model .
Alcohol or drug use, biological pre-disposal, coping skills for managing stress, emotional and physical health, family and social supportall of these factors can contribute to risk for psychosis. So, if an adolescent has family and friends in their support system, is involved in meaningful activities, has learned coping skills to deal with everyday challenges, and abstains from substances, these things can result in better mental health outcomes. Teens who dont have consistent supports in place may be more vulnerable to severe mental health challenges.
Tools To Assess Childhood Trauma
In the field of childhood trauma research, it is not uncommon to investigate early stress by clinically assessing whether some form of maltreatment took place in the individuals childhood without applying standardized trauma or maltreatment questionnaires . However, in the context of clinical studies and to further both the validity and the reliability of the observed effects in childhood trauma studies, standardized instruments should be used. Below, we present a representative selection of the most commonly used questionnaires because it would be beyond the scope of this article to include all the available ones.
With regards to semi-structured interviews, two more questionnaires are of interest because they both have specific advantages and can be useful in clinical studies: The Early Trauma Inventory and the Childrens Life Events Scale . The former instrument is a semi-structured interview that assesses four domains of traumatic experiences and then addresses the most serious trauma in an additional question . This additional question can be very useful in clinical settings because of the potential need for an extended conversation about the most burdensome issue. The CLES, which is an expansion of The Source of Stress Inventory , is a checklist composed of 50 moderate-to-major stressful childhood events that covers categories such as negative emotional feedback, family deaths, maltreatment, failure in school, and family dysfunction .
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Conflict Of Interest Statement
PF has been an honorary speaker for AstraZeneca, Bristol Myers Squibb, Lilly, Essex, GE Healthcare, GlaxoSmithKline, Janssen Cilag, Lundbeck, Otsuka, Pfizer, Servier, and Takeda and has been a member of the advisory boards of Janssen-Cilag, AstraZeneca, Lilly, and Lundbeck. AS was honorary speaker for TAD Pharma and Roche and a member of Roche advisory boards. The remaining authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. The handling Editor declared a past co-authorship with one of the authors PF.
Early Warning Signs Of Schizophrenia
In some people, schizophrenia appears suddenly and without warning. But for most, it comes on slowly, with subtle warning signs and a gradual decline in functioning, long before the first severe episode. Often, friends or family members will know early on that something is wrong, without knowing exactly what.
In this early phase of schizophrenia, you may seem eccentric, unmotivated, emotionless, and reclusive to others. You may start to isolate yourself, begin neglecting your appearance, say peculiar things, and show a general indifference to life. You may abandon hobbies and activities, and your performance at work or school can deteriorate.
Childhood Trauma In Schizophrenia: Evidence From Human Studies
UHR individuals more frequently had a history of childhood trauma, such as emotional and sexual abuse as well as emotional and physical neglect, while emotional neglect in particular was associated with paranoid symptoms . Even in UHR individuals, a history of childhood maltreatment predicted poorer functioning at follow-up in both those who had transitioned to psychosis and those who had not . Childhood trauma did not predict transition to psychosis, but after a 2-year follow-up UHR individuals with higher levels of childhood trauma had higher levels of attenuated positive symptoms, general symptoms, and depressive symptoms and lower levels of global functioning . In children born to parents with major psychoses, those who were exposed to abuse or neglect had lower IQ and GAF scores and displayed poorer cognitive performance in visual episodic memory end executive functions .
Can Anxiety Cause Schizophrenia
Although some people with schizophrenia suffer anxiety, it is impossible for people with anxiety disorders to develop schizophrenia as a result of their anxiety disorder. Anxiety sufferers should be reassured that they cannot develop schizophrenia as part of their anxiety state, no matter how bad the anxiety becomes.
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Can Schizophrenia Be Caused By Trauma
While the jury is still out on whether trauma directly causes schizophrenia, according to research conducted by the University of Liverpool, children who experienced trauma before the age of 16 were about three times more likely to become psychotic in adulthood than those who were randomly selected. The more severe the trauma, the greater the likelihood of developing illness in later life. They even found indications that the type of trauma experienced may determine what specific psychotic symptoms will manifest themselves later on.
It is also certainly true that trauma which occurs after the onset of schizophrenia can exacerbate psychotic symptomsespecially if it leads to the development of a co-occurring trauma disorder, such as PTSD. Separately, these conditions can pose serious challenges to a persons ability to live a normal lifetogether, they can become overwhelming and debilitating without proper care and support.
If your loved one is struggling with the double burden of concurrent schizophrenia and trauma, know that there is help available to help them cope with both. Though their traumatic past cannot be erasedand no cure for schizophrenia currently existsthrough proper treatment they can begin to heal and regain clarity and stability in order to lead a fuller, more independent life.
Begin Your Recovery Journey Today.
Risk Factors For Schizophrenia During Pregnancy And Delivery
Many pre- and perinatal risk factors for schizophrenia have been identified, although these tend to have a modest effect, with typical odds ratios or relative risks of 2. These factors include antenatal exposure to influenza, especially during second trimester, and other respiratory infections, rubella during pregnancy, hypoxia-related obstetric complications, low birth weight and prenatal growth retardation . So far, the evidence is less secure for antenatal stress and malnutrition in pregnancy.
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Head Trauma May Boost Schizophrenia Risk
Head trauma may increase the risk of developing schizophrenia, a new study says.
The results show people who have suffered from a traumatic brain injury are 1.6 times more likely to develop schizophrenia compared with those who have not suffered such an injury.
The risk was particularly high in those with a family history of schizophrenia.
Previous studies regarding TBI and schizophrenia have yielded mixed results as to whether the conditions are linked. The new study is one of the first to pool information from past research in a systematic way to get an indication of the risk.
While the new findings suggest the link does exist, they don’t prove that brain injuries cause schizophrenia. And it could be that patients were already developing the psychiatric condition when their injury occurred, the researchers said. More work needs to be done to find exactly what’s behind this relationship, they said.
Brain injury and schizophrenia
Traumatic brain injury results from a jolt or blow to the head, or an injury that penetrates the skull, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . Symptoms of TBI can be mild, such as a concussion, or more severe, such as amnesia, the CDC says.
TBI is known to increase the risk of some psychiatric disorders, including anxiety disorders, substance use disorders and personality change, the researchers said.
Schizophrenia affects about 7 out of every 1,000 adults worldwide, according to the World Health Organization.
Can Stress And Trauma Cause Schizophrenia
There are studies that show the experience of trauma in childhood, whether or not it develops into PTSD, is a risk factor for schizophrenia and psychosis later in life. An extensive review of 27,000 studies has definitively confirmed that trauma puts people at risk for psychotic conditions and symptoms.
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Relationship Between Trauma And Psychosis
While almost all participants agreed that trauma impacted their whole life and that they were largely still affected by it, they had different thoughts around how it influenced their current mental health. While a few participants were unsure, many believed that trauma was the cause of their psychotic symptoms and psychosis-related diagnosis, and that if they had had the chance to discuss trauma earlier this could have prevented their current condition. One participant thought that professionals diagnosed them with psychosis only because they did not believe their trauma disclosure, and they were convinced that their life would have been much better if only they had received help when they were looking for it. Participants mental health slowly or suddenly deteriorated as a direct consequence of trauma, or as a result of ignoring the event and its effects for too long. Symon explains how having the chance to discuss trauma when it first happened, could have prevented their current mental health status:
I think the best time was in 1992 when it first happened. If I wouldve had someone to speak to then, perhaps I wouldnt have the- I wouldnt have the psychological damage.
Every tiny little thing that I did I- Id phone my husband when he was at work like- Id spill, do you know the tipp-ex, that white thing that you take the pen off and Id start panicking.
How Does Schizophrenia Start
The exact causes of schizophrenia are unknown. Research suggests a combination of physical, genetic, psychological and environmental factors can make a person more likely to develop the condition. Some people may be prone to schizophrenia, and a stressful or emotional life event might trigger a psychotic episode.
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