Schizophrenia: Chronic And Severe Mental Disorders
As we know, schizophrenia and its spectrum disorders are chronic and severe mental disorders that affect an individual in many aspects of life. These disorders affect the ability to think and feel, moreover, they affect behavior, meaning that people with schizophrenia may seem as they lost the touch with reality. Sometimes, it can be difficult
Funding Source In Relation To Societal Benefit Harm And Likelihood Of Participation In Research
As shown in , participants rated the helpfulness to society , the harmfulness , and the likelihood of participating in research projects funded by a private foundation, the National Institutes of Health, the state department of health, and a pharmaceutical company.
Participants rated studies by all funding sources as helpful , but they rated studies funded by a pharmaceutical company as less helpful than studies funded by other sources . Participants rated studies by all funding sources as not very harmful , but they rated studies funded by a pharmaceutical company as more harmful than studies funded by other sources .
Participants were somewhat likely to likely to participate in studies funded by all sources , and funding source was not related to rated likelihood of participation . However, rated likelihood of participation was lower for studies funded by a pharmaceutical company than for studies funded by other sources . Likelihood of participation was positively correlated with helpfulness and negatively correlated with harmfulness for all funding sources .
The Causes Effects And Treatments Of Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia is a very complex, chronic mental health disorder. It is often characterized as displaying multiple symptoms which may include, but are not limited to: delusions, hallucinations, disorganized behavior and/or speech, and impaired cognitive ability. Schizophrenia affects about 1% of the population at some point in their lifetime . The
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How Do Primary And Secondary Care Interface
Specialist mental health services in the UK are obliged to structure patient care using the care programme approach.w13 w14 This approach provides a statutory framework that aims to ensure that clinicians comprehensively consider the patient’s main areas of need. It demands regular assessment of various aspects of the patient’s life including mental and physical health, relationships, accommodation, occupation, finances, etc. Although the framework is cumbersome and proscriptive, its strength lies in this rigid approach to structuring care and reviewing risk. Whether such a framework can be successful given the current attempts of government and primary care trusts to reduce the costs of mental health care remains to be seen.
Box 8 Common Side Effects Of Antipsychotic Drugs20
First generation antipsychotics
- Glucose intolerance and frank diabetes mellitus
- Glucose intolerance and diabetes mellitus
- Nocturnal enuresis
- Aspiration pneumonia
Some patients will inevitably need to be referred back to secondary care. Guideline criteria for this decision include:
- Poor treatment compliance
- Increase in risk profile.
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Treatment Of Schizophrenia Research Paper
View sample Treatment Of Schizophrenia Research Paper. Browse other research paper examples and check the list of research paper topics for more inspiration. If you need a religion research paper written according to all the academic standards, you can always turn to our experienced writers for help. This is how your paper can get an A! Feel free to contact our research paper writing service for professional assistance. We offer high-quality assignments for reasonable rates.
Schizophrenia is a brain disorder of unknown origin which severely deteriorates numerous complex functions of the central nervous system including thought, emotion, perception, cognition, and behavior. Schizophrenia is one of the most debilitating psychiatric disorders. Due to the high lifetime prevalence , the typical onset in early adulthood, and the strong tendency towards a chronic course, the disorder requires a very high degree of health care provisions. About one-quarter of hospital beds are occupied by schizophrenic patients, and the total costs of treatment are enormous . Although there is no cure for schizophrenia, the combined administration of pharmacological and psychosocial interventions considerably improves outcome, enhances quality of life in the patients aected, and enables social integration to a large extent.
Suicide Behavior And Its Predictors In Patients With Schizophrenia In Ethiopia
Background. People with schizophrenia are at greater risk of suicide. However, suicide behaviors that occur in PWS are often overlooked, inadequately characterized, and not consistently integrated into treatment. Despite this burden and consequences in Ethiopia, there is a dearth of studies concerning suicide behavior in PWS. Therefore, this study is aimed at assessing the magnitude of suicide behavior and its predictors among PWS in Ethiopia. Methods. An institution based cross-sectional study was employed. Data were collected using the structured interviewer-administered questionnaire from a sample of 300 PWS at Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital . The revised version of Suicide Behavior Questionnaire was used to assess suicide behavior in PWS. The data was collected from March 1 to 30, 2019. Binary logistic regression was performed to identify independent predictors of suicidal behavior at 95% confidence level. Statistical significance was declared at value < 0.05. Result. A total of 300 patients with schizophrenia participated in the study. More than two-thirds of 203 of the participants were males, and 116 participants were between the ages of 28 and 37 years. We found that the prevalence of suicide behavior among PWS was 30.3%. Being unemployed , family history of suicide (,
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Writing A Good Research Paper On Schizophrenia
In writing a good schizophrenia paper, here are some steps that you can follow, that would be very helpful.
In some cases, you might be lucky enough to be assigned a topic that makes this step relatively irrelevant. Otherwise, if you are to choose a topic on your own, of all the steps involved in writing your research paper on schizophrenia, this might be the toughest. First, you would have to research schizophrenia to understand what you are going into. After this, you would have to decide if your schizophrenia paper would be on areas of research that have previously been touched. You could also decide to dive into totally new research on schizophrenia.
Whichever topic you choose, a good research topic should not be too broad. A relatively broad topic might capture a general view of the research rather than capture a more specific view. For instance, a topic like Hard drug dependence in Schizophrenia can easily be narrowed down to Nicotine dependence in Schizophrenia patients.
In writing your research paper on schizophrenia, you could go through two ways. You could start typing your work directly or you could first have a draft. Having a draft will allow you to create a more error-free schizophrenia research paper. However, making a draft could see you extend the time you have in coming up with your schizophrenia paper.
Investigating Body Mass Index And Body Composition In Patients With Schizophrenia: A Case
Schizophrenia Research and Treatment publishes original research articles and review articles related to all aspects of schizophrenia.
Schizophrenia Research and Treatment maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Schizophrenia: Mental Illness That Controls How A Person Thinks Behaves And Feels
When you have schizophrenia you lose touch with reality. You make things up and start to hallucinate and began to get violent. You can start feeling irritated and get mad easily at the person near or by you. It can be hard to handle a person with schizophrenia they can sometimes be intolerable, when dealing
Study Size In Relation To Societal Benefit Harm And Likelihood Of Participation In Research
As shown in , participants rated all study sizes as helpful, but they rated larger studies as more helpful to society than smaller studies . The greater rated helpfulness of larger studies was twice as pronounced for studies at multiple institutions than for studies with larger samples .
Participants rated all study sizes as not harmful, but they rated studies with larger sample sizes as more harmful than those with smaller sample sizes , but they rated studies at multiple sites as less harmful than studies at single sites . In contrast to helpfulness to society ratings, where the number of institutions had greater influence on helpfulness ratings than the number of sites, participants rated the number of sites as having less influence on harmfulness than the sample size of studies.
Respondents rated their likelihood of participation in research as likely for studies of all sizes , and study size was not related to rated likelihood of participation , in contrast to the relationship of study size to ratings of helpfulness to society and harmfulness described above. However, likelihood of participation was positively correlated with helpfulness and negatively correlated with harmfulness for all study sizes .
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Negative Symptoms Of Schizophrenia
Mental health illnesses affect many people worldwide among them is schizophrenia which is a chronic mental health disorder affecting a persons brain. Patients with schizophrenia can experience various symptoms as well as functional impairments. Symptoms include delusions, trouble concentrating and hallucinations . Schizophrenia also interferes with activities of daily living, social interactions and occupational performance.
Schizophrenia Symptoms And Treatment In A Beautiful Mind
The film A Beautiful Mind chronicles the adult life of John Nash Jr., a Nobel Prize recipient widely regarded as a brilliant mathematician who greatly influenced modern economic theory. The film focuses on Nashs decades long struggle with paranoid schizophrenia after he receives a diagnosis in 1958. Although it is well known that Nash was
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Can Drug Abuse Cause Schizophrenia
We know that stimulants like cocaine and amphetamines can induce a picture clinically identical to paranoid schizophrenia, and recent reports have also implicated cannabis. The evidence that patients with established schizophrenia smoke more cannabis than the general population is overwhelming. Well conducted and comprehensive cohort studies, like that from Dunedin in New Zealand,12 show that early cannabis uselong before psychotic symptoms appearincreases the future risk of schizophrenia fourfold, while a meta-analysis of prospective studies reported a doubling of the risk.13 This effect is robust, even after controlling for any effect of self medication,13 undermining the suggestion that early cannabis use is an attempt to alleviate distress caused by the developing illness. Only a small proportion of people who use cannabis develop schizophrenia, just as only a few of those who misuse alcohol develop cirrhosis. This probably reflects a genetically determined vulnerability to the environmental stressor, a gene-environment interaction. Indeed, variations in the dopamine metabolising COMT gene affect the propensity to develop psychosis in people who use cannabis.14
Box 6 Suggested Screening Questions For Patient Presenting With Possible Psychosis
- Do you hear voices when no one is around? What do they say?
- Do you ever think that people are talking or gossiping about you, maybe even thinking about trying to get you?
- Do you ever think that somehow people can pick up on what you are thinking or can manipulate what you are thinking?
If the onset of psychosis is suspected, the patient should be rapidly referred to secondary care . This will be the local early intervention or home treatment team in many parts of the UK, or the generic catchment area community mental health team. The risk that patients pose to themselves and others must be assessed ) at this first assessment and this information included in the referral. If the presence of psychotic symptoms is confirmed by a psychiatrist, then after discussion it may be appropriate for the general practitioner to prescribe an antipsychotic. Current NICE guidelines16 recommend considering and offering an oral atypical antipsychotic such as amisulpiride, risperidone, quetiapine, or olanzapine in low doses. The need for hospital admission and even the use of the Mental Health Act will depend mainly on the patient’s presentation, the risk assessment, and the availability of good community support. General practitioners can contribute greatly to this decision because of their long term relationship with the patient and family.
Brief risk assessment screen
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B Social Class Differences
Compared with the general population averages, schizophrenia patients tend to have significantly lower incomes and educational levels. Poor urban inner city districts, inhabited by the lowest socioeconomic class, contain the largest proportion of schizophrenia patients. There is a sharp contrast between the rates of schizophrenia in the lowest socioeconomic class and all other levels, including the next higher level. Findings from various cultures suggest that rates of schizophrenia are almost two times higher in the lowest social class group compared with the next lowest.
These social class differences appear to be a partial consequence of the debilitating nature of the illness. The social-drift theory suggests that during the development of schizophrenia, people drift into poverty. When the incomes and educational levels of the parents of patients are compared with those of the general population, the differences are not as striking.
B Variability Of Symptoms Among Patients
According to DSM-IV, patients must show two or more of the preceding five symptoms to meet the diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia. Thus, no one of these symptoms is required for the diagnosis. Furthermore, the following four criteria must also be met: the patient shows marked deterioration in occupational, interpersonal, or domestic functioning the patient manifests continuous signs of symptoms or dysfunction for at least 6 months the patient does not manifest predominant signs of mood disturbance and the symptoms are not caused by substance abuse or a primary medical condition.
Because the diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia are relatively broad, with no one essential symptom, there is a great deal of variability among patients in their symptom profiles. It has therefore been proposed that schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disorder with multiple causes. It is also the case, however, that patients must show a marked and persistent impairment to meet the diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia. Thus, those who meet criteria for the diagnosis are significantly impaired in everyday functioning. For many individuals who are diagnosed with schizophrenia, independent functioning is never achieved.
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Long Term Management In Primary Care
An average general practitioner in the UK will look after about 12 patients with schizophreniaw12 and exclusively manage the care of about six. Once a patient has recovered from an acute episode of schizophrenia, current NICE guidelines recommend that they remain on prophylactic doses of antipsychotic for one to two years and continue to be supervised by specialist services. After that time, if they are well and symptom free, the drug dose can gradually be reduced and the patient carefully monitored to detect any signs of relapse if such signs occur, then the dose must be increased until they disappear. Such a programme of careful monitoring may best be achieved by collaboration between primary and secondary care.
General practitioners are central to ensuring that patients with schizophrenia receive good quality physical health care .19 Current NICE guidelines encourage all practices to establish a mental health register and offer regular physical health checks tailored to the needs of the patient. Special attention should be paid to screening for endocrine disorders hyperglycaemia and hyperprolactinaemia cardiovascular risk factors such as smoking, hypertension, and hyperlipidaemia and side effects of medication, particularly neurological, cardiovascular, and sexual ones .
Fig 2 Physical care algorithm: adapted from NICE guidelines19
Symptoms Of Schizophreniathe Targets For Treatment
Schizophrenia aects almost all areas of complex brain functions, and thought, perception, emotion, cognition, and behavior in particular. There have been numerous approaches to systematize the plethora of symptoms according to a variety of theoretical concepts. One widely accepted concept is the distinction between positive and negative symptoms . This approach groups symptoms according to whether they represent a loss of or a deciency in a normal brain function or the appearance of abnormal phenomena . From the perspective of treatment the positivenegative dichotomy is of importance because these two domains react somewhat dierently to treatment. In general, positive symptoms respond fairly well to treatment with antipsychotic drugs, whereas negative symptoms are rather dicult to inuence. The latter is particularly problematic, because negative symptoms are usually the limiting factor for personal and social rehabilitation. In addition to the typical symptoms, patients suering from schizophrenia often present numerous other psychiatric problems. Among these, anxiety, sleep disturbances, obsessions and compulsions, depression and drug or substance abuse are particularly frequent. Although these additional symptoms and problems may in many cases be the consequence of the typical symptoms rather than signs of independent additional psychiatric disorders, they complicate the course of the disease and often necessitate specic treatment approaches.
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Schizophrenia And Problems In Everyday Lives
People with schizophrenia have a lot of struggles in their everyday lives. Their minds work differently than the average, mentally sound individual. Schizophrenia is defined as a long-term mental disorder of a type involving a breakdown in the relation between thought, emotion, and behavior, leading to faulty perception, inappropriate actions and feelings, withdrawal from reality
Box 2 Common Subtypes Of Schizophrenia
- Delusions or hallucinations are prominent
- Sustained flattened or incongruous affect
- Lack of goal directed behaviour
- Prominent thought disorder
- Sustained evidence over at least two weeks of catatonic behaviour including stupor, excitement, posturing, and rigidity
- Considerable loss of personal drive
- Progressive deepening of negative symptoms
- Pronounced decline in social, academic, or employment performance
While we often think of schizophrenia as a major departure from normal health, mild symptoms can occur in healthy people and are not associated with illness.1 This has led to the conclusion that schizophrenia reflects a quantitative rather than qualitative deviation from normality, rather like hypertension or diabetes.
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