Psychosocial Effects Of Depression
The effects of depression on the brain can, in turn, affect your emotional well-being. This not only includes your favorite activities and your job but also your personal and professional relationships or activities.
When you live with untreated depression, you may notice your productivity decline. This could affect you at work or school even if you have high-functioning depression.
You could also experience the effects of depression on attention and memory performance. It might be difficult for you to recall newly learned information, for example.
Untreated depression might also lead you to isolation. You may feel lonely or like staying home more often and start passing on gatherings with close friends or family.
Keeping up with your social connections could make you feel overwhelmed and drained.
Other psychosocial effects of depression include:
- loss of interest in previously enjoyable activities or hobbies
- harder time concentrating on your tasks
- feeling frustrated, restless, or irritable without any apparent reason
- persistent anxiety or sadness thats not necessarily connected to a specific event
- feeling helpless, vulnerable, guilty, or worthless
- having a pessimistic or hopeless outlook on your life
- difficulty with decision-making
Antenatal And Postnatal Depression
Women are at an increased risk of depression during pregnancy and in the year following childbirth . This time frame may also be referred to as the perinatal period.
The causes of depression at this time can be complex and are often the result of a combination of factors. In the days immediately following birth, many women experience the baby blues, which is a common condition related to hormonal changes, affecting up to 80 per cent of women who have given birth.
The baby blues, or the general stress of adjusting to pregnancy or a new baby, are common experiences, but are different from depression.
Depression is longer lasting and can affect not only the mother, but her relationship with her baby, the childs development, the mothers relationship with her partner and with other members of the family.
Up to one in 10 women will experience depression during pregnancy. This increases to 16 per cent in the first three months after having a baby.
Different Types Of Depression
There are different types of depression, and there are some conditions where depression is a symptom. These conditions include:
- Bipolar disorder people with bipolar disorder, which is also known as “manic depression”, experience times of depression, where the symptoms are similar to clinical depression. They also go through phases when they have excessively high moods . Bouts of mania can include harmful behaviour like unsafe sex, spending sprees and gambling.
- Seasonal affective disorder is also called “winter depression”. It’s depression that is related to weather, usually winter, so it happens seasonally.
- Postnatal depression happens to some women after they’ve had a baby. It’s treated similarly to other types of depression, with antidepressant medication and talking therapy.
Learn more about how depression is diagnosed here.
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Increase In Physical Pain
Among the physical effects of depression on our body are physical aches and pains. These aches and pains are often unexplainable and occur in about two out of three patients who have depression. A vicious cycle occurs whereas depression worsens so does the pain and when pain worsens so does the depression.
Getting Help For Someone Who Is Depressed
Its important to intervene if you notice someone is depressed. The more time the person spends depressed, the harder it can be for them to get out of it. Luckily, there are ample resources available. If you or someone you know is depressed, start by talking to a physician, who will then perform an examination and possibly refer you to a psychiatrist or psychologist. The mental health professional will start by talking to you and asking various questions to determine how long the depression has been going on, the severity of the symptoms, and whether any medications are being taken that might be worsening the bad moods.
A mixture of antidepressant medication and behavioral therapy can help ease depression. Behavioral and cognitive therapies help you to recognize and alter negative self-talk that reinforces depressive thought patterns. Give our operators a call at today to learn more about recovering from depression and reclaiming your life.
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How To Cope With The Side
Psychreg on Health PsychologyWHAT’S IN THIS ARTICLE?
2020 has been a challenging and surreal year for everyone around the world. Having to somehow adapt to the onset of isolation and functioning in ways that keep us safe from getting infected has been nothing short of an uphill battle.
For the majority of people, social isolation has brought on varying degrees of anxiety and depression, and for many more, this may have been their first encounter with these mental disorders. So its safe to assume that its scary and confusing. This is why were dedicating this article to how you can cope and combat depression that is brought on by social isolation.
Socioeconomic Effects Of Long
There are a few socioeconomic effects of long-term depression that may affect your way of life. These social and economic effects of long-term depression are frequently common in people who live with depression for many months or years. Like many of the aforementioned issues, the risk for these effects increases as exposure to the stresses of depression continues without care.
If you are living with long-term depression or persistent depressive disorder and feel socially isolated, you are not alone. Many people who have long-term depression report low self-esteem and losing interest in activities and things that they once enjoyed. Both a lack of interest and a lack of energy can contribute to a disinterest in going out to social engagements. For example, you may tire of talking to your friends and having them ask you what wrong all the time is, so you may be tempted to disconnect. A common line of thinking is that you are doing them a favor. But there are healthy and effective strategies to counteract this type of thinking, including reaching out to a trained mental health professional.
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Legacy Effects Of A Discredited Theory
The popularity of the chemical imbalance idea of depression has coincided with a huge increase in the use of antidepressants, note Moncrieff and coauthor Mark A. Horowitz in the studys press release. Prescriptions for antidepressants have sky-rocketed since the 1990s, going from being rare to a situation now where one in six adults in England and 2 percent of teenagers are prescribed an antidepressant in a given year.
The practical ramifications of the umbrella review are thus vast and consequential, involving millions of people across multiple countries because the findings are tied to a discredited theory that is still fueling mass prescribing on a global basis.
Moncrieff explained in the press release:
Patients should not be told that depression is caused by low serotonin or by a chemical imbalance and they should not be led to believe that antidepressants work by targeting these hypothetical and unproven abnormalities. In particular, the idea that antidepressants work in the same way as insulin for diabetes is completely misleading. We do not understand what antidepressants are doing to the brain exactly, and giving people this sort of misinformation prevents them from making an informed decision about whether to take antidepressants or not.
Invited to extrapolate the reviews findings for Psychology Today, Moncrieff added:
Healy, D. Serotonin and Depression. BMJ 350, h1771
Side Effects Of Ketamine For Depression
As mentioned, dosages of ketamine when used to treat depression are very small. However, ketamine infusion therapy side effects still exist.
According to a small 2012 study wherein patients received up to six ketamine infusion treatments for treatment-resistant depression, the following were the commonly-reported side effects:
- The presence of psychotic symptoms
- Dissociative symptoms
- Feeling strange or unreal
- Feeling drowsy or sleepy
- Elevated heart rate or blood pressure
Notably, only four people in the study reported any side effect that impaired functioning at any time.
That said, the majority of people who were given ketamine infusion therapy for depression did experience some side effects, most remitting within two hours after the infusion.
Those who responded positively to the ketamine treatment experienced the same level and type of side effects that those who did not respond experienced.
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Medications With Depression As A Side Effect
What are the medications with depression as a side effect? These were among the most common ones listed:
- acid reflux medications like omeprazole, esomeprazole, ranitidine, and famotidine
- allergy medications like montelukast and cetirizine
- anxiety medications like alprazolam, diazepam, and lorazepam
- birth control and hormone therapy, which includes anything containing estrogen
- blood pressure medications like atenolol, metoprolol, enalapril, and quinapril
- pain medications like ibuprofen, cyclobenzaprine, hydrocodone, and tramadol
- antiseizure medications like gabapentin, topiramate, and lamotrigine.
Life Events And Depression
Research suggests that continuing difficulties, such as long-term unemployment, living in an abusive or uncaring relationship, long-term isolation or loneliness or prolonged exposure to stress at work can increase the risk of depression.
Significant adverse life events, such as losing a job, going through a separation or divorce, or being diagnosed with a serious illness, may also trigger depression, particularly among people who are already at risk because of genetic, developmental or other personal factors.
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The Chemical Imbalance Metaphor Takes Root
Revisiting the history of this controversy raises several still-relevant details. In December 2005, as advertising for SSRI antidepressants flooded American magazines, talk shows, and network TV, the result of multibillion-dollar campaigns pitched in this case directly to consumers, Florida-based professors and researchers Jeffrey Lacasse and Jonathan Leo asked pointedly in PLoS Medicine, Are the claims made in SSRI advertising congruent with the scientific evidence?
The answer in Serotonin and Depression: A Disconnect Between the Advertisements and the Scientific Literature, their well-researched article, was a resounding no. The resulting incongruence, they determined, was remarkable and possibly unparalleled.
Lacasse and Leo found repeated evidence that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration had approved the marketing of SSRIs with two phrases still heavily in the subjunctivethat depression may be due to a serotonin deficiency and that SSRI efficacy, modestly outcompeting placebo, was presumed to be linked to potentiation of serotonergic activity. However, the research itself could not identify the precise mechanism.
The FDA had accepted aspirational language that the drugs help to restore the brains chemical balance and bring serotonin levels closer to normal, even though both claims were, and remain, scientifically meaningless.
Dual Diagnosis: Addiction And Depression
Drug addiction and depression often go hand in hand. According to the Anxiety and Depression Association of America, 20 percent of people with depression or similar mood disorders also have a problem with substance abuse. The staff at drug rehab facilities is therefore trained to help treat depression as well as drug addiction because the two disorders are often co-morbid.
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Depression Increases The Risk Of Arthritis
A set of researchers sought to examine just this and to determine how varying levels of depression affect arthritis rates in the older population. The participants were separated into a control group and three experimental groups based on mild, moderate, or severe depressive symptoms.
The researchers found higher rates of arthritis in all three experimental groups compared to the control group. Those with mild symptoms showed an increased prevalence of 55 percent, moderate symptoms related to an increase of 62.9 percent, and severe depressive symptoms increased the prevalence of arthritis by 67.8 percent. The highest prevalence was found in the age group between 50 and 69 years of age.
Looking After Someone Who Has Depression
If you’re close to someone with depression, their condition can affect you too. Your relationship, and family life in general, can be strained, and you might not know what to do or how to help.
Talking about the situation can help. Finding a support group, or talking to other people in a similar situation, can make it easier to cope. If the condition is causing difficulties in your relationship with your partner, you could contact a relationship counsellor who can talk things through with both of you.
When suffering from depression, men are less likely to ask for help than women. They’re also more likely to turn to drugs and alcohol to cope with the symptoms.
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Seek Support For Symptoms Of Depression
Depression is often not recognised and can go on for months or even years if left untreated. Its important to seek support as early as possible, as the sooner a person gets treatment, the sooner they can recover.
Untreated depression can have many negative effects on a persons life, including serious relationship and family problems, difficulty finding and holding down a job, and drug and alcohol problems.
There is no one proven way that people recover from depression. However, there is a range of effective treatments and health professionals who can help people on the road to recovery.
There are also many things that people with depression can do for themselves to help them recover and stay well. The important thing is to find the right treatment and the right health professional for a persons needs.
Signs And Symptoms Of Depression
The signs and symptoms of depression in teens do vary from person to person based upon individual temperament, presence of co-occurring disorders, and usage of substances. While it can be challenging to determine what is normal teen behavior and teen depression, early identification and treatment can prevent future complications.
The most common signs and symptoms of teen depression include:
- Use of alcohol or drugs
- Disruptive behavior
- Loss of interest in once-pleasurable activities
- Increased time spent alone
- Increased conflict in interpersonal relationships
- Slowed thinking, speaking, or movements
- Extreme sensitivity to rejection or failure
- Need for extreme amounts of reassurance
- Unexplained crying spells
- Feelings of anger even over insignificant matters
- Ongoing feelings that life and the future are grim, bleak, hopelessness
- Self-harm and self-mutilation
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Who Gets Side Effects
Everyone reacts differently to medication. Your side effects may not be the same as those of someone else who takes the same thing. Some people donât notice any problems.
Things that may affect how you respond to antidepressants include:
- Other medications. Some drugs might interact, Coulter says. This can lead to more side effects if your other medications are increasing the level of your antidepressant. On the other hand, the other medications may cause your antidepressant to be less effective. He says this is why itâs important to make sure that all your health care providers have a complete list of the medications youâre taking, both prescription and over-the-counter.
- Age. âElderly patients are more likely to have some kind of a side effect than younger ones,â Coulter says.
- Genes. Your genes affect the way your body handles drugs. In other words, if your body absorbs medication slowly, youâre going to be more prone to side effects, Coulter says.
- The type of drug. Older medications like tricyclic antidepressants and MAOIs tend to have more side effects than SSRIs, SNRIs, and atypical antidepressants.
Depression And Drugs And Alcohol
“Drowning your sorrows” is actually a bad idea when it comes to depression. Alcohol is categorised as a “strong depressant” which can make depression worse, and drinking or taking drugs to cope can lead to a downward spiral by having a negative affect on other parts of your life.
There’s evidence that cannabis can cause depression, particularly in teenagers, even if it helps you relax.
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How Your Depression Medicine Can Affect Your Life
If youâre being treated for depression, taking an antidepressant may be part of your treatment plan. Antidepressants work by balancing chemicals in your brain called neurotransmitters that affect mood and emotions. These depression medicines can help improve your mood, help you sleep better, and increase your appetite and concentration.
âAntidepressants can help jump-start mood and give people the boost they need to get over the symptoms of their depression,â says Eric Endlich, PhD, a clinical psychologist based in Boston. âThis often allows them to start doing the things they enjoy again and make better choices for themselves, which also helps contribute to a more positive mood.â
If youâre taking an antidepressant, itâs important to know what to expect and how it will affect your life. Here are the answers to five common questions about taking antidepressants.
Is It Depression Or Bipolar Disorder
Bipolar disorder, also known as manic depression, involves serious shifts in moods, energy, thinking, and behavior. Because it looks so similar to depression when in the low phase, it is often overlooked and misdiagnosed. This can be a serious problem as taking antidepressants for bipolar disorder can actually make the condition worse.
If youve ever gone through phases where you experienced excessive feelings of euphoria, a decreased need for sleep, racing thoughts, and impulsive behavior, consider getting evaluated for bipolar disorder.
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Seeing A Doctor About Depression
Big changes in your life, like bereavement, losing a job, or even having a baby, can cause symptoms of depression. You’re also more likely to experience depression if you have a family history of depression. However, it’s also possible to become depressed without there being an obvious reason.
You can learn more about depression causes here.