How Often Ptsd And Depression Coincide
Depression is one of the most commonly co-occurring diagnoses in people with post-traumatic stress disorder. In fact, researchers have found that among people who have a diagnosis of PTSD, approximately 48% to 55% also experienced current or previous depression.
People who have had PTSD at some point in their lives are three to five times as likely as people without PTSD to also have depression.
PTSD and depression may be connected in a number of ways.
What Are Residual Symptoms
Researchers still dont know a lot about residual symptoms of PTSD, because most of the literature focuses on active PTSD and treatment methods.
However, one thing is clear: residual symptoms are somewhat different from PTSD symptoms, which include distress, flashbacks, nightmares, and unpleasant memories about the traumatic experience.
Residual symptoms can be more gradual, though just as pervasive in day-to-day life. They may also appear well after PTSD treatment is over even months or years later blurring the lines between active and recovery states.
In one , 59% of those who had been treated for PTSD reported subthreshold levels of symptoms. As in, not enough to warrant full-on treatment, yet not completely back to a normal baseline either.
In that same study, 1 in 3 participants reported clinical-level symptoms after treatment, meaning that further treatment would be a good idea.
Is Complex Ptsd A Separate Condition
The International Classification of Diseases identifies complex PTSD as a separate condition, though the DSM-5 currently does not.
Complex PTSD is a relatively recent concept. Because of its variable nature, healthcare professionals may instead diagnose another condition. They may be especially likely to diagnose borderline personality disorder .
Some researchers have areas of substantial overlap between complex PTSD and BPD.
However, the conditions may also have differences. Authors of a study from 2014 reported that, for example, people with complex PTSD had consistently negative self-conceptions, while people with BPD had self-conceptions that were unstable and changing.
People with complex PTSD may experience difficulties with relationships. They tend to avoid others and may feel a lack of connection.
BPD can cause a person to swing between idealizing and undervaluing others, resulting in relationship difficulties.
It is possible for a person with BPD to also experience complex PTSD, and the combination may result in additional symptoms.
A person with complex PTSD may experience symptoms in addition to those that characterize PTSD.
Common symptoms of PTSD and complex PTSD include:
People with PTSD or complex PTSD may also experience:
Symptoms of complex PTSD can vary, and they may change over time.
People with the condition may also experience symptoms that are not listed above.
Persistent Sadness And Being Suicidal
Complex trauma survivors often experience ongoing states of sadness and severe depression. Mood disorders are often co-morbid with complex PTSD.
Complex trauma survivors are high risk for suicidal thoughts, suicide ideation and being actively suicidal. Suicide ideation can become a way of coping, where the survivor feels like they have a way to end the severe pain if it becomes any worse. Often the deep emotional pain survivors feel, can feel unbearable. This is when survivors are at risk of developing suicidal thoughts.
For more information about suicidal issues, see my website.
How To Help Someone With Ptsd
Contributed by Christine Binney
Post-traumatic stress disorder, or PTSD, is a mental health problem that can occur after a traumatic event. It can be hard for people to know how to help someone with PTSD because it is impossible to relate to their experience. If you have a friend or family member who is suffering from PTSD, you know how difficult it is to see your loved ones behavior change. Its important to remember that the person suffering from PTSD doesnt always have control over their behavior, so you should not take their actions personally. While it is a hard journey for all involved, there are ways that you can help get life back to the way it was before the trauma. Here is a short guide on how to help someone with PTSD.
Understand the inner workings of PTSD
Understanding PTSD is the first step towards helping someone recover. PTSD is caused by harrowing ordeals such as a physical assault, sexual violence, a natural disaster, war, an accident or the death of a loved one. When a person is threatened with or suffers serious physical harm or violence, they will experience intense fear, helplessness and terror.
Learn the symptoms
Offer social support
Create a sense of safety
Have a plan in place
Remain calm during emotional outbursts
Encourage professional treatment
Take care of yourself
How Do You Heal From A Past Relationship Trauma
Beginning the recovery processAcknowledge instead of avoid. Healing often requires you to first come to terms with what happened. … Practice accepting difficult emotions. Plenty of unpleasant emotions can show up in the aftermath of betrayal. … Turn to others for support. … Focus on what you need.
How Do I Move On From Ptsd
Take time to relax. Relaxation techniques such as meditation, deep breathing, massage, or yoga can activate the body’s relaxation response and ease symptoms of PTSD. Avoid alcohol and drugs. When you’re struggling with difficult emotions and traumatic memories, you may be tempted to self-medicate with alcohol or drugs.
Enlist The Help Of Others
If you know that you may be at risk for a flashback or dissociation by going into a certain situation, bring along some trusted support. Make sure that the person you bring with you is also aware of your triggers and knows how to tell and what to do when you are entering a flashback or dissociative state.
What Is A Ptsd Flashback Like
Posttraumatic stress disorder flashbacks are examples of a re-experiencing of the trauma that caused the PTSD. Because of this, the details of the flashback tend to be impacted by the person who experienced the trauma as well as the type of trauma he or she experienced. What can be said for what happens during most PTSD flashbacks is that it is scary for those experiencing it and even for those around them.
Does Medicine Work
Some studies have shown that ketamine can be an effective treatment for relieving symptoms of PTSD and CPTSD when administered in small doses via infusion therapy. A ketamine derivative called esketamine was approved in 2019 as a nasal spray for the treatment of depression. The drug has therapeutic value beyond its design as an anesthetic.
Can Ptsd Feel Love
PTSD from any cause, such as war or a natural disaster, can greatly affect a persons relationships. However, PTSD is often caused by relationship-based trauma, which could make it more difficult to feel comfortable in other relationships. Relationship-based causes of PTSD include: Sexual abuse or assault.
What Should I Know About Participating In Clinical Research
Clinical trials are research studies that look at new ways to prevent, detect, or treat diseases and conditions. Although individuals may benefit from being part of a clinical trial, participants should be aware that the primary purpose of a clinical trial is to gain new scientific knowledge so that others may be better helped in the future.
Researchers at NIMH and around the country conduct many studies with patients and healthy volunteers. Talk to your health care provider about clinical trials, their benefits and risks, and whether one is right for you. For more information, visit NIMH’s clinical trials webpage.
Arousal And Reactivity Symptoms
- Having difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep
- Feeling irritable and having angry or aggressive outbursts
- Engaging in risky, reckless, or destructive behavior
Arousal symptoms are often presentthey can lead to feelings of stress and anger and may interfere with parts of daily life, such as sleeping, eating, or concentrating.
Where To Get Help
- Your doctor
- Mental health specialist, such as a psychiatrist, psychologist or social worker, with experience in treatment of PTSD
- Community health centre
- Phoenix Australia – Centre for Posttraumatic Mental Health Tel. 9035 5599
- Australian Guidelines for the Treatment of Acute Stress Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, 2013, Australian Centre for Posttraumatic Mental Health. More information here.
Ptsd In Children And Teenagers
Older children and teenagers experience similar problems to adults when they develop PTSD. Younger children can express distress in a different way. For example, they may re-live the traumatic event through repetitive play rather than having unwanted memories of the event during the day. Many children have frightening dreams without recognisable content rather than that replay the traumatic event. Children may also lose interest in play, become socially withdrawn, or have extreme temper tantrums.
About one third of children who experience a traumatic event will develop PTSD.
Other problems that can develop alongside PTSD include or , defiant behaviour, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and in teenagers and young adults, suicidal thoughts and alcohol or drug use.
How Common Is Ptsd
Here are some facts :
- About 7 or 8 out of every 100 people will have PTSD at some point in their lives.
- About 8 million adults have PTSD during a given year. This is only a small portion of those who have gone through a trauma.
- About 10 of every 100 women develop PTSD sometime in their lives compared with about 4 of every 100 men . Learn more about women, trauma and PTSD.
Personal factors, like previous traumatic exposure, age, and gender, can affect whether or not a person will develop PTSD. What happens after the traumatic event is also important. Stress can make PTSD more likely, while social support can make it less likely.
Learn more: How Common is PTSD?
When To Seek Help For Ptsd
A person who has experienced a traumatic event should seek professional help if they:
- dont feel any better after two weeks
- feel highly anxious or distressed
- have reactions to the traumatic event that are interfering with home, work and/or relationships
- are thinking of harming themselves or someone else.
Some of the signs that a problem may be developing are:
- being constantly on edge or irritable
- having difficulty performing tasks at home or at work
- being unable to respond emotionally to others
- being unusually busy to avoid issues
- using alcohol, drugs or gambling to cope
- having severe sleeping difficulties.
Hyperarousal Signs Of Ptsd
Some signs of post-traumatic stress disorder have to do with the brain and bodys hyperarousal in the wake of a traumatic threat. Because the brain interprets the traumatic event as a present danger, natural fight-or-flight reactions become engaged and sometimes prolonged during re-experiencing of the event. In combination with general hypervigilance that so often accompanies PTSD, these signs of hyperarousal can amount to an exhausting and stressful experience for the survivor.
Insomnia is one PTSD symptom that is associated with hyperarousal. Many survivors with PTSD have significant difficulty falling asleep and staying in a deep sleep throughout the night. Due to persistent fears, some individuals with PTSD also sleep with the lights on, making it difficult to obtain a restful, REM-level of sleep.
Irritability is another symptom of hyperarousal, where survivors become prone to angry outbursts over slight issues. This may impact relationships and job performance. Many survivors also experience short-term memory difficulties, making focus, expression, and cognition a struggle.
Ptsd: Why Does It Happen How Survivors Can Heal
A traumatic event is something no one is prepared to deal with. You may feel your mind and body are in a state of shock from the experience. You may have nightmares, feel jumpy, or find yourself re-playing the event in your mind. You may even feel disconnected from the world around you. What happened was traumatic, and any person would feel shaken up. This is natural and human.
For people who have enough resilience, the intense state of alarm will go away over time. They can sort out their thoughts and feelings, process what happened, and move on. It may take days or weeks, but the symptoms gradually decrease.
With post-traumatic stress disorder the feelings dont go away. People with PTSD dont experience getting a little bit better every day. In fact, trying to cope with the after-effects of severe trauma can be very difficult. New brain research and the hard work of survivors provide important insights for treatment and hope.
How Does Treatment For C
Not only do C-PTSD and dissociation notresolve an individuals trauma, but they also contribute additional distressing symptoms that can last for years until comprehensive treatment steps in. In a comprehensive care environment, clinicians can help to ease a persons symptoms and simultaneously help to reframe their relationship with the trauma for real healing in the long term.
An important early step is to get a thorough diagnosis from an experienced clinician. Knowing whether this person has complex post-traumatic stress disorder with dissociative symptoms or complex PTSD and a co-occurring dissociative disorder is extremely important in paving the treatment path. Not to mention, other co-occurring substance use or mood or other disorders may also be present and need careful attention.
The best kind of treatment for complex post-traumatic stress disorder and dissociation is a combination of therapies. With time and patience, clinicians and clients develop a trusting alliance and gradually approach the trauma that has been building and weighing on the persons memories and emotions. They will discover the barriers that have stood in the way of healing and in the way of more productive coping strategies. Simultaneously, they will heal the post-trauma symptoms and the relationship to the traumatic experiences that have been unresolved for so long.
Ptsd: 5 Signs You Need To Know
According to the National Center for PTSD, posttraumatic stress disorder, about 8 million Americans have PTSD during a given year. Women are more likely to develop PTSD, with a lifetime incidence of 1 in 10. For men, its 1 in 25.
Yet an even higher number of Americans experience trauma each year. So when does suffering a traumatic event lead to suffering from a traumatic disorder?
PTSD is a mental health diagnosis characterized by five events or symptoms, says Dr. Chad Wetterneck, PhD, clinical supervisor for Rogers Behavioral Health.
Here, Dr. Wetterneck walks us through each sign:
How To Treat Ptsd Psychotic Symptoms
The base treatment of the psychotic symptoms of PTSD are similar to the basic treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. Medications are often used and can include anti-depressants, anti-anxiety medications, anti-psychotic medications, and various off-label prescriptions. Severe depression can also cause psychotic symptoms.New studies are underway on various medications to test their ability to better help patients with PTSD. Along with medication, talk therapy, biofeedback, education about PTSD and psychotic symptoms of PTSD are also used. The reasoning behind educating the patient is to help them keep themselves balanced and to hopefully understand that they are experiencing these symptoms due to their PTSD and hopefully will not succumb to believing what their symptoms are telling them. Not all patients with post-traumatic stress disorder will experience PTSD psychotic symptoms. To help avoid triggering episodes of psychosis it is important for the person with PTSD to be under the care of a psychology specialist and maintain a treatment regiemine of medication and/or therapy sessions.
Will People With Ptsd Get Better
“Getting better” means different things for different people. There are many different treatment options for PTSD. For many people, these treatments can get rid of symptoms altogether. Others find they have fewer symptoms or feel that their symptoms are less intense. Your symptoms don’t have to interfere with your everyday activities, work, and relationships.
What Are Examples Of Triggers
Some examples of common triggers are:the anniversary dates of losses or trauma.frightening news events.too much to do, feeling overwhelmed.family friction.the end of a relationship.spending too much time alone.being judged, criticized, teased, or put down.financial problems, getting a big bill.More items
Other Effects Of Ptsd
If you are experiencing symptoms of PTSD, you might also find that you have difficulty with some everyday aspects of your life, such as:
- looking after yourself
- remembering things and making decisions
- your sex drive
- coping with change
- simply enjoying your leisure time.
If you drive you may have to tell the DVLA that you have PTSD. For more information on your right to drive, including when and how to contact the DVLA, see our legal pages on fitness to drive.
“My behaviour changed and became erratic. I would alternate from wanting to shut myself away and not see or talk to anyone to going out to parties in the middle of the week and staying out late.”
Tips To Get Out Of A Ptsd Episode
Traumatic events can have a lasting impact on your mental health. If you’ve experienced a violent assault or a serious accident, or if you’ve been involved in active combat, you may have an ongoing emotional response for days or even weeks. But if you’ve been haunted by trauma for months or years, you may have a condition called post-traumatic stress disorder, or PTSD.
Traumatic events can have a lasting impact on your mental health. If youve experienced a violent assault or a serious accident, or if youve been involved in active combat, you may have an ongoing emotional response for days or even weeks. But if youve been haunted by trauma for months or years, you may have a condition called post-traumatic stress disorder, or PTSD.PTSD is distinguished from other forms of anxiety by episodes, which are delayed stress reactions to the trauma you experienced in your past. These episodes are frightening when they occur but, with proper treatment, they can be effectively controlled.
How Can You Recognize Triggers
Some are obvious. Others are subtle. In fact, you may not realize something is a trigger until you have a reaction. It may seem like your PTSD symptoms come out of the blue. But theyâre usually caused by an unknown trigger.
Feeling as if youâre in danger is a sign that youâve experienced a PTSD trigger. A therapist can help you identify yours. They can also help you learn ways to cope.
Lori Zoellner, Ph.D., professor of psychology, University of Washington, Seattle.
JoAnne Difede, Ph.D., director of the Program for Anxiety and Traumatic Stress Studies, NewYork-Presbyterian and Weill-Cornell Medicine.
U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs: âPTSD: National Center for PTSD.â
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration: âTrauma-Informed Care in Behavioral Health Services.â
Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience: âEmotion and Cognition Interactions in PTSD: A Review of Neurocongitive and Neuroimaging Studies.â
National Institutes of Mental Health: âPost-Traumatic Stress Disorder.â
How Ptsd Triggers Develop
During life-threatening or dangerous situations, the body goes into fight-or-flight mode. In this survival mode, your heart rate increases, and your senses are on high alert, absorbing as much information as they can. The brain halts some normal functions, such as short-term memory, to make this extreme vigilance possible. While these physiological changes can help you cope with real or perceived danger in the short term, it makes processing traumatic events more difficult in the long term.
When a trauma isnt fully processed, the brain acts as if the original threat is still present, even months or years after the incident occurred. Any small details associated with the memory can make you feel like youre experiencing the trauma all over again, triggering symptoms of PTSD. People, places, things or experiences that remind you of your traumatic event are considered triggers.
Genetics May Play A Role
Another possibility is that there is some kind of genetic factor involved in the development of both PTSD and depression. Family history is known to be a major risk factor for the development of depression. Research has also suggested that there may be a genetic predisposition for PTSD. So it makes sense that genetics may also play a role in the co-occurrence of the two conditions.
Why Can’t I Let Go Of My Past
Most people can’t let go of the past because they don’t appreciate their present. Reframing our relationship with our past requires us to stop thinking of how things should be and accept them for what they are. As Dalai Lama said, “Attachment is the origin, the root of suffering; hence it is the cause of suffering.”13 feb. 2020
Grounding To Offset A Ptsd Episode
Although they come on quickly, a person will usually have a little bit of warning prior to the flashback or dissociation. They may feel they are losing their connection to reality or things may start to look blurry. One method for not completely losing touch with reality is through a technique known as grounding, which is similar to mindfulness.
Just as it sounds, grounding can help a person stay present so that they recognize their oncoming PTSD symptoms for what they are. This technique involves strategies such as these:
- Engaging each of the senses by identifying things in the immediate environment they can see, smell, touch, taste, and hear
- Moving aroundwhether by walking, running, or jumpingto help disrupt the bodys stress response
- Breathing deeply and slowly to help calm themselves
What Are The Different Types Of Triggers
Anything that reminds you of what happened right before or during a trauma is a potential trigger. Theyâre usually tied to your senses. You may see, feel, smell, touch, or taste something that brings on your symptoms. While triggers themselves are usually harmless, they cause your body to react as if youâre in danger.
A number of things can trigger your PTSD. Some of the most common include:
People: Seeing a person related to the trauma may set off a PTSD reaction. Or someone may have a physical trait thatâs a reminder. For example, if someone with a beard mugged you, other bearded men may bring back memories.
Thoughts and emotions: The way you felt during a traumatic event could cause symptoms.
Things: Seeing an object that reminds you of the trauma can cue your PTSD symptoms.
Scents: Smells are strongly tied to memories. For instance, someone who survived a fire might become upset from the smoky smell of a barbecue.
Places: Returning to the scene of a trauma is often a trigger. Or a type of place, like a dark hallway, may be enough to bring on a reaction.
TV shows, news reports, and movies: Seeing a similar trauma often sets off symptoms. This includes scenes from a television show or movie, or a news report.
Feelings: Some sensations, such as , are triggers. For survivors of assault, a touch on a certain body part may lead to a flashback.
Tastes: The taste of something, like , may remind you of a traumatic event.
How A Body Memory Presents Itself
It differs depending on the trigger but my flashback body memories usually start with a hot flash. My body begins to sweat, my heart picks up speed, and small noises around me grow louder and louder. I get this sick feeling in my stomach that is similar to nausea but better described as the feeling of pure panic, like waking up and realizing you slept through an exam. My triggers for a body memory flashback can be anything from an angry tone of voice to the sound of a punching bag being hit at my gym.
For a long time, I wasn’t aware that I was experiencing body memories. The feelings I get during these flashbacks are very similar to the ones I get during a panic attack. It was–and is–hard to distinguish the two symptoms from each other. My therapist eventually helped me see the connection, and understanding my body memory flashbacks has helped me understand my trauma better overall.