Depression And Drugs And Alcohol
“Drowning your sorrows” is actually a bad idea when it comes to depression. Alcohol is categorised as a “strong depressant” which can make depression worse, and drinking or taking drugs to cope can lead to a downward spiral by having a negative affect on other parts of your life.
There’s evidence that cannabis can cause depression, particularly in teenagers, even if it helps you relax.
The Circadian Rhythm Theory
Circadian rhythms oscillate with ~24-h periodicity and are responsible for regulating a wide variety of physiological and behavioral processes. Endogenous cyclic oscillations are regulated in humans and other mammals by the circadian pacemakerthe suprachiasmatic nucleus neurons of the anterior hypothalamus . The circadian pacemaker can change its pattern so that the circadian rhythm may be advanced, delayed, or remain constant in various pathological states or when affected by different pharmacological preparations and hormones for instance, melatonin regulates the function of the biological clock through melatoninergic receptors residing in the hypothalamic SCN . At the cellular level, the molecular clock refers to a network of clock genes, which are transcriptional regulators organized in a feedback-sustained transcriptiontranslation network. This mechanism helps maintain the rhythmic expression of target genes during a 24-h cycle . The basis of the molecular clock is the negative feedback loop, in which the expression of PER and CRY proteins is inhibited by their interactions with the transcriptional factors CLOCK and BMAL1 and by blocking their binding to E-box regulatory elements in the promoters of the genes for PER and CRY protein family members. Posttranslational modifications of the molecular clock system components by signal molecules such as casein kinase / and glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta play important roles in the maintenance of circadian rhythms .
Coping With Infant Depression
According to Dr. Farrell, physical contact and verbal interactions are important when a child experiences symptoms of depression. âShow interest in the baby and what it does in its continuing mental and physical development,â she suggests. She also recommends physical stimulation such as toys, age-appropriate children’s picture books, and playtime with other children in the home.
Dr. Fiorvanti also recommends strategies such as child-directed play and age-appropriate books. “One of the best tools we have for helping children who are experiencing social-emotional distress is play,” she suggests.
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What Is Postnatal Depression
Postnatal depression affects up to 15 percent of mothers after they have given birth and up to 9 percent of women during pregnancy. Depression can happen any time during pregnancy or up to a year after ppi is born. It can also occur after a miscarriage.
The symptoms of postnatal depression usually start within a first few months of the birth. You may not seem interested in your ppi or in other members of your whnau, or you may find it difficult to do everyday tasks.
Dads can also experience depression at this time, especially if their partner is depressed. Depression in new fathers is often not recognised and is not usually called postnatal depression.
The warning signs
Symptoms of postnatal depression are similar to depression at other times. They include feeling sad most of the time and losing interest in things that were once enjoyable. The symptoms might include:
- feeling worthless, hopeless, useless
- feeling so sad that eating and sleeping patterns change
- blaming yourself when things go wrong, even if its not your fault
- feeling anxious, panicky or overwhelmed especially regarding your ppi
- having thoughts of suicide that may include hurting your ppi
- not feeling close to your ppi and other whnau members.
Depression And Epigenetic Factors
Studies and statistics, as well as laboratory experiments on mice and experimental animals, have proven that environmental or internal physiological external factors such as continuous psychological stress, harsh environmental conditions, or psychological trauma interact with the individuals genetic total and lead to many changes at the epigenetic level, where this could be available via epigenetic techniques that resulting in variations in Gene Expr. with transgenerational abilities that do not include a variation in the DNA sequence, by increasing or decreasing rates of DNA methylation, as well as altering the formation of histones around the DNA, which affects the expression of some proteins, by increasing or decreasing, as the levels of hormones that contribute to depressive episodes vary, basing on the conditions and factors of the environment, the nutrition, and physical activity .
Predisposing factors for depression.
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What Medications Can I Take For Postpartum Depression
Your healthcare provider may prescribe antidepressants to manage symptoms of postpartum depression. Antidepressants help balance the chemicals in your brain that affect your mood.
If you’re breastfeeding, talk to your healthcare provider about the risks and benefits of taking an antidepressant. Medications can transfer to your baby through your milk. However, the transfer level is generally low, and many antidepressant medications are considered safe. Your provider can help you decide what medicine is right for you based on your symptoms and if you’re nursing.
Some common antidepressants for postpartum depression are:
- Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors such as sertraline and fluoxetine .
- Serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors such as duloxetine and desvenlafaxine .
- Tricyclic antidepressants such as amitriptyline or imipramine .
Keep in mind that it takes at least three or four weeks for antidepressants to work. Talk to your healthcare provider before stopping the medication. Stopping your medication too soon can cause symptoms to return. Most providers will recommend reducing your dose before stopping completely.
If your provider detects postpartum depression while youâre still in the hospital, they may recommend IV medication containing brexanolone.
Personal Factors That Can Lead To Depression
Personal factors that can lead to a risk of depression include:
- family history depression can run in families and some people will be at an increased genetic risk. However, this doesnt mean that a person will automatically experience depression if a parent or close relative has had the condition.
- personality some people may be more at risk because of their personality, particularly if they tend to worry a lot, have low self-esteem, are perfectionists, are sensitive to personal criticism, or are self-critical and negative
- serious medical conditions these can trigger depression in two ways. Serious conditions can bring about depression directly or can contribute to depression through the associated stress and worry, especially if it involves long-term management of a condition or chronic pain
- drug and alcohol use can both lead to and result from depression. Many people with depression also have drug and alcohol problems.
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Major Causes Of Depression
The first and foremost thing to be observed is that depression is quite a complex disorder. It has got several dimensions and cannot be attributed to one single reason, whatsoever. Some experience depression due to or as a consequence of medical illness. On the other hand, some may develop depression as a result of major life events that occurred such as the death of a loved one, migration to another city, or ending of a long-term relationship.
Depression can also occur as a result of heredity. Amusingly, depression can also occur without any solid reasons to point out. Below given are some of the main causes that lead to the development of depression.
The Role Of Genetics In Depression
As far as researchers know, it’s the interplay of genes and other factors that determine whether someone develops depression.
Some studies have indicated that someone with a first-degree relative diagnosed with depression could be three times more likely to be diagnosed with depression in their lifetime compared to the general population.
However, its important to note that while studies have suggested a clear link within families, these findings dont account for those who develop depression without a family history.
Research has demonstrated that genes play a role in the potential risk for many health conditions, including depression.
Studies have suggested there is a heritable component to depression. Some research has also indicated that women may be more susceptible to the genetic influences associated with depression than men.
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Depression: What You Need To Know As You Age
If youre one of the more than 14.8 million American adults who experiences major depression, you may feel so bad that you cant get out of bed, be around the people you love or participate in activities that you usually enjoy. Actually, there are more than 50 different symptoms of major depression, ranging from the well-knowncrying and sadnessto those you might never associate with depression, such as anger, workaholism and back pain.
Depression is a disease that affects every aspect of a persons life, not just mood, says Johns Hopkins expert Andrew Angelino, M.D., Chair of Psychiatry at Howard County General Hospital. The World Health Organization predicts that by 2020, depression will be the second-leading cause of disability in the world, just behind cardiovascular disease.
People who are depressed are far more likely to have other chronic medical conditions, including cardiovascular disease, back problems, arthritis, diabetes, and high blood pressure, and to have worse outcomes. Untreated depression can even affect your immune response to some vaccines.
Depression is not just debilitating it can be deadly. An estimated one out of five people with depression will attempt suicide at some point.
Depression And Chronic Pain
Any kind of pain, physical or mental, that exists for more than a given period is referred to as chronic pain. Chronic pain severely disrupts your daily functioning and exerts a negative impact on your health, both physical and mental, relationships, work, and sleep, and diet.
It is bound to leave you isolated, sad, and depressed, gradually. A multi-dimensional combination of medicine, psychotherapy, support groups, and such will be required to manage the pain and ease the depression.
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Searching For A Single Gene
While experts continue to search for a single gene that might spark, many experts believe such a gene will never be found, in part because depression is not a single disease but an entire category of mental health conditions with unique symptoms and triggers.² Factors that may or may not lead to depression include personality, temperament, and coping skills, which differ from one individual to the next.
I dont think that there is one thing called depression, says King. I think theres maybe a dozen things that we call depression. And that means different subtypes of depression may have different genetics.
This genetic vulnerability to develop the disease can be triggered by several biological, environmental, or or risk factors.
Each person inherits a unique combination of genes from their mother and father, and certain combinations of this genetic inheritance may predispose them to a particular vulnerability, such as depression, explains King.
Yet, he notes that not everyone gets depression. Those who do, he says, are vulnerable to stressors.
Why are they so vulnerable? he asks. It could be things that happen genetically in utero or things that happen when youre a baby or things that happen when youre an adolescent or when youre a young adult.
Are You Destined For Bipolar Disorder
But even if youre not born with bipolar disorder, I suspect some people are so heavily burdened with genetics its mostly a foregone conclusion anyway but maybe these people wont develop symptoms in childhood. After all, none of us makes it into adulthood without suffering some traumas. Life is unpredictable for all.
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How Is Biology Related To Depression
Researchers have noted differences in the brains of people who have clinical depression compared with those who do not. For instance, the hippocampus, a small part of the brain that is vital to the storage of memories, appears to be smaller in some people with a history of depression than in those who’ve never been depressed. A smaller hippocampus has fewer serotonin receptors. Serotonin is one of many brain chemicals known as neurotransmitters that allow communication across circuits that connect the brain regions involved in processing emotions.
Scientists do not know why the hippocampus may be smaller in some people with depression. Some researchers have found that the stress hormone cortisol is produced in excess in depressed people. These investigators believe that cortisol has a toxic or “shrinking” effect on the development of the hippocampus. Some experts think depressed people may be simply born with a smaller hippocampus and are thus inclined to have depression. There are many other brain regions, and pathways between specific regions, thought to be involved with depression, and likely, no single brain structure or pathway fully accounts for clinical depression.
Early Trauma And Abuse
One of the more well-studied depression risk factors is trauma in early childhood. Adverse Childhood Experiences are known to increase a persons lifetime risk of developing both mental and chronic physical illness, including depression. Research into ACEs is ongoing, but previous studies have confirmed a strong link between specific childhood experiences and depression later in life.
The CDC groups ACEs into three types:
- Abuse: Physical, emotional, sexual
- Household dysfunction: Domestic violence, divorce, substance use, a parent who is mentally ill, a parent who is incarcerated
- Neglect: Physical, emotional
An individuals ACE score is strongly linked to their risk of mental and physical illness, poverty, and even early death. Risk increases as the number of ACEs increases and a person with four or more ACEs is at the highest risk.
Researchers believe that child abuse may change the brain physically, as well as alter its connectivity structure. Studies have also shown that neuroendocrine function may be altered in people who experienced high levels of stress as children.
A 2019 study from the Massachusetts General Hospital has even proposed that traumatic experiences in the first three years of life may even change a child’s DNA.
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Causes And Risk Factors
Depression is not a mood you can just get over. It is a disease in which the brain ceases to register pleasurable activities, says Angelino. Indeed, MRI studies with depressed people have found changes in the parts of the brain that play a significant role in depression.
Women are about twice as likely as men to be diagnosed with depression. Youre also more likely to develop depression if you are between ages 45 and 64, nonwhite, or divorced, and if you never graduated high school, cant work or are unemployed, and dont have health insurance. Other risks for depression include factors such as these:
- Experiencing stressful events in your life, such as losing your job, having problems in your marriage, major health problems, and/or financial challenges.
- Having a bad childhood, such as one involving abuse, poor relationships with your parents, and/or your parents own marital problems.
- Certain personality traits, such as getting extremely upset when youre stressed.
- A family history of depression, which can increase your own risk three or four times.
Depression is far more common than you might think, with nearly one out of 10 adults depressed at any time, about half of them severely.
What Causes Postpartum Depression
More research is needed to determine the link between the rapid drop in hormones after delivery and depression. The levels of estrogen and progesterone increase tenfold during pregnancy but drop sharply after delivery. By three days postpartum, levels of these hormones drop back to pre-pregnancy levels.
In addition to these chemical changes, the social and psychological changes associated with having a baby increase your risk of postpartum depression. Examples of these changes include physical changes to your body, lack of sleep, worries about parenting or changes to your relationships.
If you’ve had any of the following symptoms, please notify your healthcare provider right away.
- Thoughts of harming yourself or your baby.
- Recurrent thoughts of death or suicide.
- Depressed mood for most of the day, nearly every day for the last two weeks.
- Feeling anxious, guilty, hopeless, scared, panicked or worthless.
- Difï¬culty thinking, concentrating, making decisions or dealing with everyday situations.
- Loss of interest or pleasure in most activities nearly every day for the last two weeks.
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What Is Postpartum Depression
In the first few weeks of caring for a newborn, most new moms feel anxious, sad, frustrated, tired, and overwhelmed. Sometimes known as the “baby blues,” these feelings get better within a few weeks. But for some women, they are very strong or don’t get better. Postpartum depression is when these feelings don’t go away after about 2 weeks or make it hard for a woman to take care of her baby.
It’s not anyone’s fault or a weakness when a woman gets postpartum depression. Postpartum depression is treatable. Treatment helps most women feel like themselves again. Then they can enjoy having a new baby at home.
But What About Nature Vs Nurture
This is where the waters get murky. Because, yes, there is the sadness gene, and there are many documented instances of hereditary depression.
However, a lot of people in those studies also grew up in the same environment.
So while there may be a genetic link, theres no way to prove that the younger generation didnt learn depression by seeing how parents and other relatives dealt with difficult experiences and stress rather than genetically inheriting it.
Psychological Depression Symptoms Include:
- doing poorly at work
- difficulties with your family or home life
It’s not always possible to tell that you’re having symptoms of depression right away it can start and progress gradually. A lot of people don’t realise they’re ill and try to carry on and cope with their symptoms. Sometimes it takes a friend or family member to notice that there’s a problem.