Factors Contributing To Postnatal Depression
The exact causes of PND are still not known. Some contributing factors might include:
- physical changes even a relatively easy birth is an overwhelming experience for a womans body. In addition, the sudden drop in pregnancy hormones affects brain chemicals . Broken sleep and exhaustion can also contribute to depression
- emotional changes adapting to parenthood is daunting. A new mother has to deal with the constant demands of her baby, a different dynamic in her relationship with her partner and the loss of her own independence. Such changes are hard at the best of times, but are even more overwhelming when a woman is still physically recovering from childbirth and coping with broken sleep
- social changes society puts lots of demands and expectations on a new mother, which a woman may feel she needs to live up to. She may find herself less able to keep up contact with her friends and workmates. Adapting to living on one wage may also be difficult.
How Can You Prevent Genetic Depression
Genetic depression cannot be eradicated but can be taken precaution from. One can aim to lead a healthy life by doing regular exercise,yoga, meditation,having nutritious diet, not taking too much stress and staying connected with a homely social environment.
The Genetics of Depression: A Review Douglas F. Levinson
If I Take Antidepressants During My Pregnancy Will They Hurt My Baby
You may think you should stop taking medication for depression when you are pregnant. Remember that, if left untreated, depression can have serious effects for both you and your baby. If you are taking antidepressants and are thinking about getting pregnant , talk to your doctor first, before stopping any medication. You can also consult the following trusted resources: www.mothertobaby.org, www.medicinesinpregnancy.org.
Some newborn babies may have symptoms such as irritability, fast breathing, tremors and poor feeding if their mothers took antidepressants during pregnancy. These symptoms are usually mild and pass quickly, usually within 2 weeks. These babies typically respond well to a quiet environment, swaddling, skin-to-skin contact, and frequent small feeds. Serious problems such as heart defects or more severe breathing issues are very rare.After your baby is born, they will be watched closely to make sure they are healthy. Your doctors and nurses will make sure that you are both well before letting you go home. You may need to stay an extra day or two in the hospital so that they can be sure.
You May Like: Anya Shumilina
Can Depression Be Prevented
Even if you are more vulnerable to depression, there is plenty you can do to keep symptoms away.
Some proven strategies to help you stay well include:
- avoiding harmful levels of alcohol and other substance use
- improving your sleep
- reducing anxiety, such as through relaxation techniques
- staying active
- staying sociable, so you avoid becoming isolated
If I Am Taking Antidepressants Can I Breastfeed My Baby
Breastfeeding provides many health benefits for babies. It also helps mothers and babies bond. If you are taking antidepressants, small amounts will come out through your breast milk. But studies have shown that children exposed to these drugs through breast milk have not had problems.
Even if you are taking antidepressants, you can breastfeed your baby for as long as you wish. Stopping an antidepressant during breastfeeding may cause the depression to return.
You May Like: How To Get Motivated To Exercise When Depressed
Warning Signs Of Postnatal Depression
You may have depression if you:
- lose your joy or feel an absence of pleasure
- feel sad, hopeless, worthless, and/or useless
- have little or no energy
- feel you just cant cope with anything, even housework
- feel angry or irritated and dont know why
- cry a lot
PADA is a national organisation whose vision is to eliminate the stigma around perinatal mental health in New Zealand.
Certain Areas Of Your Brain Are More Developed Than Others
The Theory: Certain areas of our brain control or amplify our fear responses â and those areas are shaped differently among people with anxiety than they are among others.
The Research: Cognitive scientists at UC Berkeley found that two factors in brain development were common among people who were anxious â an overactive amygdala and an underactive ventral prefrontal cortex. The researchers subjected test subjects to random recordings of someone screaming they found that subjects with very active amygdalas showed higher-than-average fear responses when subjected to the screams. Those same subjects also didn’t seem to be able to engage their ventral prefrontal cortex, which calmer study members engaged as they coped with their fear when hearing the screams.
Though the study didn’t come to any conclusions about why some of us have robust amygdalas and weak-ass ventral prefrontal cortexes, they did believe that their research may have opened the door for a new form of anxiety treatment â one based around stimulating the ventral prefrontal cortex.
Also Check: Three Phases Of Schizophrenia
What Is The Single Most Common Cause Of Depression
Depression cannot arise solely because of one single reason. usually, there are many factors at play that eventually leads to depression. The excess or deficit of certain chemicals in the brain alone, cannot cause depression. There will be the presence of other factors including faulty mood regulation by the brain, genetic vulnerability, stressful life events, severe trauma, medications, and other associated medical problems.
Depression And Chronic Pain
Any kind of pain, physical or mental, that exists for more than a given period is referred to as chronic pain. Chronic pain severely disrupts your daily functioning and exerts a negative impact on your health, both physical and mental, relationships, work, and sleep, and diet.
It is bound to leave you isolated, sad, and depressed, gradually. A multi-dimensional combination of medicine, psychotherapy, support groups, and such will be required to manage the pain and ease the depression.
You May Like: What Does The Suffix Phobia Mean
How Is Biology Related To Depression
Researchers have noted differences in the brains of people who have clinical depression compared with those who do not. For instance, the hippocampus, a small part of the brain that is vital to the storage of memories, appears to be smaller in some people with a history of depression than in those who’ve never been depressed. A smaller hippocampus has fewer serotonin receptors. Serotonin is one of many brain chemicals known as neurotransmitters that allow communication across circuits that connect the brain regions involved in processing emotions.
Scientists do not know why the hippocampus may be smaller in some people with depression. Some researchers have found that the stress hormone cortisol is produced in excess in depressed people. These investigators believe that cortisol has a toxic or “shrinking” effect on the development of the hippocampus. Some experts think depressed people may be simply born with a smaller hippocampus and are thus inclined to have depression. There are many other brain regions, and pathways between specific regions, thought to be involved with depression, and likely, no single brain structure or pathway fully accounts for clinical depression.
What Foods Help Ease Depression
While no specific diet has been proven to relieve depression, a healthy diet can help you feel your best physically and mentally. Certain foods may be linked to brain health and support for memory, alertness, and mood. Examples include foods that contain omega-3 fatty acids , antioxidants , and nutrients like choline . Always talk with your doctor before making any major diet changes.
Don’t Miss: What Is The Phobia Of Bees
What Dopamine Deficiency Means
There is no reliable way to measure dopamine levels in the brain.
What is known is that certain clusters of symptoms are linked to abnormal dopamine activity.
So whenever you see the phrases low dopamine or dopamine deficiency, know that these terms mean that one or more of the following is taking place:
- Too little dopamine is being made.
- There are too few dopamine receptors or the receptors arent working as well as they should.
- Dopamine is being broken down too soon or not being appropriately recirculated.
Mental Illness Is Not A Sin
Yes, sins in the past like physical abuse, substance abuse and neglect may contribute to depression, and these sins often continue as coping mechanisms to those suffering from mental illnesses. Yet this doesnt make the sufferer of depression and anxiety a sinner simply for experiencing the crushing effects of their condition.
What happens when mental illness is treated as an unconfessed, unaddressed sin is alienation. Viewing depression as a sin in and of itself prevents individuals from seeking treatment. It also ignores the fact that many Christians may respond to depression in unhealthy ways if the root cause is ignored or misunderstood.
Recommended Reading: Does Pristiq Help With Anxiety
Managing Symptoms: Staying Healthy
Being healthy is important for all children and can be especially important for children with depression or anxiety. In addition to getting the right treatment, leading a healthy lifestyle can play a role in managing symptoms of depression or anxiety. Here are some healthy behaviors that may help:
- Having a healthy eating plan centered on fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes , lean protein sources, and nuts and seeds
- Participating in physical activity for at least 60 minutes each day
- Practicing mindfulness or relaxation techniques
What Job Has The Highest Rate Of Depression
Five industries in the workforce are highly affected by depression and these cover a wide spectrum. From the survey taken, public and private transit showed the highest rate at 16.2% of their workers suffering from depression, followed by real estate , social services , manufacturing , and personal services .
Read Also: Phobia Def
Major Causes Of Depression
The first and foremost thing to be observed is that depression is quite a complex disorder. It has got several dimensions and cannot be attributed to one single reason, whatsoever. Some experience depression due to or as a consequence of medical illness. On the other hand, some may develop depression as a result of major life events that occurred such as the death of a loved one, migration to another city, or ending of a long-term relationship.
Depression can also occur as a result of heredity. Amusingly, depression can also occur without any solid reasons to point out. Below given are some of the main causes that lead to the development of depression.
Types Of Depressive Disorder
There are several types of depression, and while they are all characterised by intense low mood, there are also important differences.
Major depression is also known as major depressive disorder. The most recognised symptom is low mood and loss of interest in activities that were once considered pleasurable. These symptoms can be mild, moderate or severe, but will probably interfere with daily life and relationships. The low mood will persist for at least 2 weeks, and will be experienced on most days. Sub-types of major depression include:
- melancholic depression, a severe form of depression that includes physical as well as emotional symptoms
- psychotic depression, which includes hallucinations delusions or paranoia .
Bipolar disorder is characterised by extreme mood changes that disrupt daily life. Symptoms of manic episodes include showing extremely high energy in speech and activity, agitation and a reduced need for sleep.
Symptoms of depressive episodes are similar to those of major depression. People who have bipolar disorder can also experience episodes of psychosis .
Cyclothymic disorder is sometimes described as a milder form of bipolar disorder. The person experiences changing moods for at least 2 years. They have periods of hypomania and episodes of depressive symptoms. They may also have very short periods of even moods, with fewer than 2 months in between. Symptoms tend to be less severe and are shorter lasting than in bipolar disorder or major depression.
Read Also: What Is Pristiq Good For
Signs Of Depression And Anxiety Can Be Seen In Newborns
Senior Writer, The Huffington Post
Depression and anxiety can take root as early as the very first moments of life.
Certain patterns of brain connectivity seen in newborn babies can predict the babys likelihood of showing early symptoms of mental illness including sadness, excessive shyness, nervousness and separation anxiety, according to findingspublished in the of the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. These early symptoms, in turn, are strongly linked with clinical depression and anxiety in older children and adults.
may indicate that for some children their brains are developing along a trajectory that increases their risk for mental health symptoms as they develop, Dr. Cynthia Rogers, a child psychiatrist at Washington University in St. Louis and lead study author, told The Huffington Post.
Its important to note, however, that the experiences and environment that they are exposed to as they grow may alter these connectivity patterns making it more or less likely for these symptoms to develop.
The initial aim of the study was to investigate functional connectivity differences between babies born prematurely and those born at full-term. Previous studies had suggested that pre-term babies are at a greater risk of developing psychiatric issues later in life, and the researchers wanted to know whether differences in brain connectivity played a role.
Can Depression Be Cured
With treatment, most people recover from depression. Treatment can include one or more of the following:
- Social support: Community services or parenting education.
- Family therapy: With your partner and/or children. This can help when children are older.
- Individual therapy: Talking one-on-one with a family doctor, psychologist, psychiatrist, social worker, or other professional.
- Medication: Drugs used most often to treat depression are SSRIs .
Read Also: What Are The Three Stages Of Schizophrenia
Is There A Gene For Depression
There is a common belief that more than forty percent of the depression cases prevailing in the world can be traced to a genetic link. Environmental factors and other related factors make up for the rest of the sixty percent. Research has also proved that those people who have siblings or family members suffering from depression are three times more likely to be at risk for depression.
Can Depression Go Away On Its Own Without Treatment
Surprisingly, some experts say that it can. For some people, depression is cyclical or seasonal, and they can eventually recover and remit without any specific intervention, says Dr. Murrough. But we also know that treatments like psychotherapy and medications can severely reduce the symptoms and duration of an episode of depression. Many individuals who suffer from depression never seek treatment, and thats why from a public health perspective we want to keep reducing the stigma around it.
Don’t Miss: Definition Of Phobia
What Is Postnatal Depression
Postnatal depression affects up to 15 percent of mothers after they have given birth and up to 9 percent of women during pregnancy. Depression can happen any time during pregnancy or up to a year after ppi is born. It can also occur after a miscarriage.
The symptoms of postnatal depression usually start within a first few months of the birth. You may not seem interested in your ppi or in other members of your whnau, or you may find it difficult to do everyday tasks.
Dads can also experience depression at this time, especially if their partner is depressed. Depression in new fathers is often not recognised and is not usually called ‘postnatal depression’.
The warning signs
Symptoms of postnatal depression are similar to depression at other times. They include feeling sad most of the time and losing interest in things that were once enjoyable. The symptoms might include:
- feeling worthless, hopeless, useless
- feeling so sad that eating and sleeping patterns change
- blaming yourself when things go wrong, even if it’s not your fault
- feeling anxious, panicky or overwhelmed especially regarding your ppi
- having thoughts of suicide that may include hurting your ppi
- not feeling close to your ppi and other whnau members.
Activities That Raise Dopamine Levels
Any activity that makes you feel happy and relaxed increases dopamine.
Physical exercise stimulates a spurt of dopamine and is one of the neurotransmitters responsible for runners high.
It can boost dopamine by over 30% while also decreasing the stress hormone cortisol.
Meditation causes a dopamine release.
So do creative hobbies that focus the mind similarly to meditation, such as knitting, art, sewing, baking, and gardening.
Playing and listening to music you enjoy stimulates a dopamine release.
Interestingly, you dont even have to listen to music.
Just the anticipation of hearing it has the same effect.
Seek and Find
Engage in seeking and finding activities such as geocaching, fishing, bird watching, wild food foraging, and collecting of all kinds.
This emulates the hunt that provided our ancestors with their dopamine boosts.
Take on new challenges and set small, regular mileposts to push your progress.
Accomplishing goals, even small ones, stimulates a surge of dopamine.
Read Also: Does Pristiq Help With Anxiety
What Is Perinatal Depression
Perinatal depression is a mood disorder that can affect women during pregnancy and after childbirth. The word perinatal refers to the time before and after the birth of a child. Perinatal depression includes depression that begins during pregnancy and depression that begins after the baby is born . Mothers with perinatal depression experience feelings of extreme sadness, anxiety, and fatigue that may make it difficult for them to carry out daily tasks, including caring for themselves or others.
How is postpartum depression different from the baby blues? The baby blues is a term used to describe mild mood changes and feelings of worry, unhappiness, and exhaustion that many women sometimes experience in the first 2 weeks after having a baby. Babies require around-the-clock care, so its normal for mothers to feel tired or overwhelmed sometimes. If mood changes and feelings of anxiety or unhappiness are severe, or if they last longer than 2 weeks, a woman may have postpartum depression. Women with postpartum depression generally will not feel better unless they receive treatment.