How Can I Prevent An Eating Disorder
If eating disorders run in your family, being aware of the warning signs is a good first step to catching the problem early. Prompt treatment can break unhealthy eating patterns before they become harder to overcome. You can also reduce the risks of an eating disorder by getting treatment for problems like depression, anxiety and OCD.
Be a positive role model for your family, eating health food and avoiding talking about food as good or bad. Do not diet, talk about dieting or make negative comments about your body.
How Are Eating Disorders Managed Or Treated
Treatments for eating disorders vary depending on the type and your specific needs. Even if you dont have a diagnosed eating disorder, an expert can help you address and manage food-related issues. Treatments include:
- Psychotherapy: A mental health professional can determine the best psychotherapy for your situation. Many people with eating disorders improve with cognitive behavioral therapy . This form of therapy helps you understand and change distorted thinking patterns that drive behaviors and emotions.
- Maudsley approach: This form of family therapy helps parents of teenagers with anorexia. Parents actively guide a childs eating while they learn healthier habits.
- Medications: Some people with eating disorders have other conditions, like anxiety or depression. Taking antidepressants or other medications can improve these conditions. As a result, your thoughts about yourself and food improve.
- Nutrition counseling: A registered dietitian with training in eating disorders can help improve eating habits and develop nutritious meal plans. This specialist can also offer tips for grocery shopping, meal planning and preparation.
The best treatment approach is often a combination of all of these professionals working together to obtain a comprehensive treatment to address the physical, mental and behavioral aspects.
Dual Diagnosis: Addiction And Eating Disorders
Victims of eating disorders often display many of the same traits that have been observed in substance abusers. People with eating disorders often describe their compulsions in language thats very similar to that used by an addict, and many will persist in their destructive behaviors despite escalating negative consequences for doing so. This is the working definition of an addictive disorder.
Its no surprise then that many of the patients who report for the treatment of an eating disorder will also need treatment for a chemical dependency or behavior issue such as sexual compulsion or gambling addiction. These secondary issues may be treated in the standard manner with an initial period of detoxification followed by CBT.
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Are There Clinical Trials Studying Eating Disorders
NIMH supports a wide range of research, including clinical trials that look at new ways to prevent, detect, or treat diseases and conditions, including eating disorders. Although individuals may benefit from being part of a clinical trial, participants should be aware that the primary purpose of a clinical trial is to gain new scientific knowledge so that others may be better helped in the future.
Researchers at NIMH and around the country conduct clinical trials with patients and healthy volunteers. Talk to your health care provider about clinical trials, their benefits and risks, and whether one is right for you. For more information about clinical research and how to find clinical trials being conducted around the country, visit NIMH’s clinical trials webpage.
Questions To Ask Your Doctor
- What treatment is best for me?
- Will I have to be in treatment for the rest of my life?
- What can I do to help my child get better?
- Does my child have an eating disorder?
- Do I need counseling?
- Why do I have an eating disorder?
- Is there a medicine I should take?
- Do we need family counseling?
- Will my child need to be hospitalized?
- If I suspect my child has an eating disorder, what should I do?
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How To Get Help Or Support Someone Whos Struggling
When it comes to our mental health, people who struggle with negative body image feel that their bodies are inferior to others, and are more likely to suffer from feelings of depression, isolation, and low self-esteem. Beyond just mental and physical health, having an intensely negative body image can lead to lack of participation in and withdrawal from social plans, as well as shying away from intimacy, potentially eroding communication and trust in friendships and relationships.
Its extremely important to encourage loved ones who may be struggling with these issues to seek professional help or get help yourself. In most cases, eating disorders can be treated successfully by appropriately trained health and mental health care professionals. As always, if you feel out of control and need help immediately, text START to 741-741 or call 1-800-273-TALK .
Additionally, our article Tips for Body Positivity: Ways to Feel Better About Our Bodies, offers resources and information to help you or someone you know get help and feel better about themselves.
Who Does Anorexia Affect
Anorexia can occur in people of any age, sex, gender, race, gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation and economic status and individuals of all body weights, shapes and sizes. Anorexia most commonly affects adolescents and young adult women, although it also occurs in men and is increasing in numbers in children and older adults.
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Risk & Protective Factors
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Emotional Symptoms Of An Eating Disorder
The emotional symptoms of an eating disorder are as varied as the causes, and they can sometimes have consequences that are as serious as the underlying disorder from which they spring. If you are feeling the effects of what you think may be an eating disorder, dont hesitate to reach out for help call us at as soon as you can.
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What Eating Disorders Do To Your Body
The question Glamour health editors heard most after Brittany Murphy’s death: Could an eating disorder have caused it? We may never know for sure, but what we do know is that anorexia, bulimia and binge eating disorder can have serious and wide-ranging effects. Just a few of the consequences:
Not having enough body fat can halt ovulation having too much can throw hormones out of whack. The good news is that for many women, fertility returns once they get healthy, and they don’t suffer any long-term problems, says Walter H. Kaye, M.D., director of the University of California, San Diego, eating disorders program.
Anorexia literally starves the heart, making it weaker dehydration from vomit-ing may cause electrolyte imbalances that can lead to cardiac arrest. Most of the damage is reversible once a woman reaches a healthy weight.
Women who frequently make themselves throw up suffer cavities and tooth loss, as stomach acid erodes enamel. “Can you imagine having dentures in your thirties? I’ve seen it,” says Jennifer Nardozzi, Psy.D., national training manager of the Renfrew Center eating disorders clinics.
Other Specified Feeding Or Eating Disorder
A person with OSFED has many of the symptoms of other eating disorders but their condition doesn’t align with any specific disorder. People with OSFED commonly have very disruptive eating habits and can have a distorted body image. Around 1 in 3 people who seeks treatment for an eating disorder have OSFED.
The Disorder Healthcare Providers Often Miss
Healthcare providers often overlook the signs of an eating disorder, and many even say things that could make the disorder worse. Not asking a patient who has lost a significant amount weight about his or her eating habits, and instead praising them for finally getting their weight under control, is one common scenario, says Nanci Pradas, PhD, a psychotherapist in private practice in Bedford, Massachusetts. Many doctors also prescribe medication for depression without considering how a patients mental state might be affecting their eating behavior.
International Journal of Eating Disorders.
How Is Anorexia Diagnosed
A healthcare provider can diagnose a person with anorexia based on the criteria for anorexia nervosa listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders published by the American Psychiatric Association. The three criteria for anorexia nervosa under the DSM-5 include:
- Restriction of calorie consumption leading to weight loss or a failure to gain weight resulting in a significantly low body weight based on that persons age, sex, height and stage of growth.
- Intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat.
- Having a distorted view of themselves and their condition. In other words, the individual is unable to realistically assess their body weight and shape believes their appearance has a strong influence on their self-worth and denies the medical seriousness of their current low body weight and/or food restriction.
Even if all of the DSM-5 criteria for anorexia arent met, a person can still have a serious eating disorder. DSM-5 criteria classifies the severity of anorexia according to body mass index . Individuals who meet the criteria for anorexia but who arent underweight despite significant weight loss have whats known as atypical anorexia.
Diagnostic guidelines in the DSM-5 also allow healthcare providers to determine if a person is in partial remission or full remission as well as to specify the current severity of the condition based on body mass index .
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It Becomes A Psychological Addiction
You might think that high levels of dopamine sound like a good thing, but it’s only good in moderation. “Over time, the threshold needed to feel the same high is higher so the binge needs to be more intense to feel the same effect,” said Chazin. Basically, where you used to be able to eat one cookie to get that dopamine rush, eventually you’ll need two and then five and so on. And like any addiction, binge eating comes with a real physical “sugar crash” that leaves you feeling tired and weak, sometimes even causing “sweating and shakiness,” Chazin said.
“Binge eating is much like bingeing on other things like drugs or alcohol. It produces a chemical reaction in the brain that keeps the behavior going,” said Monte Drenner, a licensed counselor, master certified addictions professional, life coach, and consultant. Drenner explained that, as with any addiction, long-term binge eating leads to a shorter “high” coupled with intense “emotional pain.”
What Do Eating Disorders Do To Your Body
Eating Disorders can be silent body-harmersuntil they arent, which makes it hard to realize sometimes what eating disorders do to our bodies.
What I mean to say is, we might not identify problems inside our physical bodies until we are so sick that we require medical help.
The human body is magical. Our bodies are designed to find ways to survive even under the harshest conditions. While complications may take time to notice, it is important to address eating disorder thoughts and behaviors before symptoms become severe.
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How To Create A Healthier Relationship With Food And Body Image
Experts find that its helpful to introduce and practice new thought patterns related to your body and your self-image. These could include:
- Appreciate all of the activities your body can do, and celebrate the amazingness of what your body does for you
- Practice seeing yourself as a whole person by keeping a list of things that you like about yourself that dont relate to your weight or body shape
- Remind yourself that confidence, self-acceptance, and openness make you beautiful
- Surround yourself with positive people who value you, and others, for personality and not appearance
- Look for, become critical of, and protest social media messages that make you feel bad about your body
What Is Avoidant Restrictive Food Intake Disorder
Avoidant restrictive food intake disorder , previously known as selective eating disorder, is a condition where people limit the amount or type of food eaten. Unlike anorexia nervosa, people with ARFID do not have a distorted body image or extreme fear of gaining weight. ARFID is most common in middle childhood and usually has an earlier onset than other eating disorders. Many children go through phases of picky eating, but a child with ARFID does not eat enough calories to grow and develop properly, and an adult with ARFID does not eat enough calories to maintain basic body function.
Symptoms of ARFID include:
- Dramatic restriction of types or amount of food eaten
- Lack of appetite or interest in food
- Dramatic weight loss
- Upset stomach, abdominal pain, or other gastrointestinal issues with no other known cause
- Limited range of preferred foods that becomes even more limited
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The Relationship To Eating Disorders
BDD shares some common features with eating disorders, but there are also important distinctions between them. Some similarities include:
- People with eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa and those with body dysmorphic disorder may both be overly concerned with their size, shape, weight, or outward appearance.
- Those with body dysmorphic disorder may even fixate on areas of their bodies that are similar to fixations seen in anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, such as the waist, hips, and/or thighs.
- They may also experience similar symptoms such as body checking and excessive exercise.
Researchers have estimated that as many as 12% of people with body dysmorphic disorder also have anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa.
However, it is important to note that not everyone with body dysmorphic disorder has an eating disorder. There are people with body dysmorphic disorder who focus solely on specific body parts . That’s different than focusing on weight.
A thorough assessment by a mental health professional such as a therapist or psychiatrist is useful to sort out whether or not someone has an eating disorder, body dysmorphic disorder, or both.
Signs Of Bulimia Nervosa
People with bulimia nervosa have episodes of eating large amounts of food followed by purging , fasting, or exercising excessively to compensate for the overeating.
Unlike anorexia, people with bulimia are often a normal weight. But they have the same intense fear of gaining weight and distorted body image. They see themselves as âfatâ and desperately want to lose weight. Because they often feel ashamed and disgusted with themselves, people with bulimia become very good at hiding the bulimic behaviors.
The following are common signs of bulimia:
- Evidence of binge eating, including disappearance of large amounts of food in a short time, or finding lots of empty food wrappers or containers
- Evidence of purging, including trips to the bathroom after meals, sounds or smells of vomiting, or packages of laxatives or diuretics
- Skipping meals or avoiding eating in front of others, or eating very small portions
- Exercising excessively
- Wearing baggy clothes to hide the body
- Complaining about being âfatâ
- Using gum, mouthwash, or mints excessively
- Constantly dieting
- Scarred knuckles from repeatedly inducing vomiting
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What Are The Risk Factors For Developing Anorexia
Anorexia can affect anyone, no matter their gender, age or race. However, certain factors put some people at greater risk for developing anorexia, including:
- Age: Eating disorders, including anorexia, are more common in adolescents and young adults, but young children and older adults can still develop anorexia.
- Gender: Women and girls are more likely to be diagnosed with anorexia. However, its important to know that men and boys can have anorexia and may be under-diagnosed due to differences in seeking treatment.
- Family history: Having a parent or sibling with an eating disorder increases your risk of developing an eating disorder, such as anorexia.
- Dieting: Dieting taken too far can develop into anorexia.
- Changes and trauma: Big changes in your life, such as going to college, starting a new job or going through a divorce, and/or trauma, such as sexual assault or physical abuse, may trigger the development of anorexia.
- Certain careers and sports: Eating disorders are especially common amongst models, gymnasts, runners, wrestlers and dancers.
Body Image Issues In Eating Disorders
Eating disorders are complex mental illnesses caused by genetic as well as environmental factors negative body image is just one potential contributor. However, negative body image is prominent in eating disorders because many people with eating disorders place a high value on their body shape and weight when determining their own self-worth.
This over-evaluation of shape and weight is a symptom of some, but not all, eating disorders. Ones self-evaluation being disproportionately influenced by body shape and weight is consistent with a diagnosis of either anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa. A diagnosis of anorexia nervosa is additionally consistent with a disturbance in the way ones body weight or shape is experienced or an inability to recognize the seriousness of the current low body weight.
Over-evaluation of shape and weight is not a required feature of binge eating disorder , the most common eating disorder. Research indicates that only about 60 percent of BED patients met the criteria for over-evaluation of shape and weight. However, it appears that patients with BED who experience a preoccupation with shape and weight may have a more severe form of BED. Patients with the eating disorder avoidant restrictive food intake disorder do not typically experience any preoccupation with shape and weight at all.
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