If I Take Medicine To Treat Anorexia Can I Breastfeed My Baby
Maybe. Some medicines used to treat anorexia can pass through breastmilk. Certain antidepressants can be used safely during breastfeeding.
Talk to your doctor to find out which medicine works best for you. Learn more about medicines and breastfeeding in our Breastfeeding section. You can also enter a medicine into the LactMed® database to find out if the medicine passes through breastmilk and about any possible side effects for your nursing baby.
Health Risks Of Anorexia
Long-term anorexia can lead to severe health problems associated with not getting the right nutrients . But these will usually start to improve once your eating habits return to normal.
Possible complications include:
- problems with muscles and bones â including feeling tired and weak, osteoporosis, and problems with physical development in children and young adults
- fertility problems
- loss of sex drive
- problems with the heart and blood vessels â including poor circulation, an irregular heartbeat, low blood pressure, heart valve disease, heart failure, and swelling in the feet, hands or face
- problems with the brain and nerves â including fits , and difficulties with concentration and memory
- kidney or bowel problems
- having a weakened immune system or anaemia
Anorexia can also put your life at risk. It’s one of the leading causes of deaths related to mental health problems. Deaths from anorexia may be due to physical complications or suicide.
Other Specified Feeding And Eating Disorder
This diagnostic category includes eating disorders or disturbances of eating behavior that cause distress and impair family, social or work function but do not fit the other categories listed here. In some cases, this is because the frequency of the behavior dose not meet the diagnostic threshold or the weight criteria for the diagnosis of anorexia nervosa are not met.
An example of other specified feeding and eating disorder is “atypical anorexia nervosa”. This category includes individuals who may have lost a lot of weight and whose behaviors and degree of fear of fatness is consistent with anorexia nervosa, but who are not yet considered underweight based on their BMI because their baseline weight was above average.
Since speed of weight loss is related to medical complications, individuals who lose a lot of weight rapidly by engaging in extreme weight control behaviors can be at high risk of medical complications, even if they appear normal or above average weight.
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Behavioral & Emotional Signs Of Anorexia
Individuals that struggle with anorexia will display specific behavioral and emotional warning signs that indicate a lack of nourishment and mental distress. One of these include:
- Reporting an intense fear of weight gain or becoming fat.
- Emphasis on body weight, size, shape, and appearance that causes apparent distress.
- Hyperfocused on food, including nutritional content, bodily impact, and
- Ritualistic eating patterns such as small/large bites, pushing food around, eating in groups, avoiding certain foods, holding food in cheeks, etc.
- Distorted body image.
- Exercising excessively, even when weather is bad, interferes with job/school/socializing, or injury occurs.
- Refusing to eat or be seen eating by others and avoiding eating in social situations.
- A pattern of declining to eat, possibly stating that they have already eaten and/or arent hungry.
- Mood swings and increased emotion dysregulation.
- Difficulty thinking clearly and focusing.
Avoidant Restrictive Food Intake Disorder
Avoidant restrictive food intake disorder , previously known as selective eating disorder, is a condition where people limit the amount or type of food eaten. Unlike anorexia nervosa, people with ARFID do not have a distorted body image or extreme fear of gaining weight. ARFID is most common in middle childhood and usually has an earlier onset than other eating disorders. Many children go through phases of picky eating, but a child with ARFID does not eat enough calories to grow and develop properly, and an adult with ARFID does not eat enough calories to maintain basic body function.
- Dramatic restriction of types or amount of food eaten
- Lack of appetite or interest in food
- Dramatic weight loss
- Upset stomach, abdominal pain, or other gastrointestinal issues with no other known cause
- Limited range of preferred foods that becomes even more limited
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Anorexia Nervosa Diagnosis & Treatment
A life in complete recovery is possible. If you or a loved one is struggling with Anorexia Nervosa, you do not have to suffer alone. The Alliance is here to help. Connect with us at Findedhelp.com to find eating disorder treatment options near you today or call 866-662-1235. Learn more about members of an eating disorder treatment team here and discover recovery programs, services and support groups with The Alliance here. You are not alone! Help is available and recovery is possible.
Does Anorexia Include Weight Loss
Anorexia nervosa can include weight loss. However, there are many cases of atypical anorexia where weight loss does not occur even with extreme restriction.
Body weight should not be used to determine an anorexia diagnosis on its own. However, rapid weight loss and very low body weights should be examined for an anorexia diagnosis.
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Binge Eating Disorder Treatment
A combination of modalities may be used to manage binge eating disorder. Cognitive behavioral therapy can help identify and change unhealthy thinking patterns that lead to bingeing episodes. Other helpful treatments include nutrition counseling, family therapy, and support groups. Weight-loss programs can help the sufferer achieve and maintain a healthy weight. Medications may be prescribed to help manage depression if it is present.
Physical Signs And Effects Of Anorexia Nervosa
Anorexia nervosa can affect the mind and body in a multitude of ways:
Brain preoccupation with food/calories, fear of gaining weight, headaches, fainting, dizziness, mood swings, anxiety, depression
Hair and skin dry skin, brittle nails, thin hair, bruises easily, yellow complexion, growth of thin white hair all over body , intolerance to cold
Heart and blood poor circulation, irregular or slow heartbeat, very low blood pressure, cardiac arrest, heart failure, low iron levels
Intestines constipated, diarrhoea, bloating, abdominal pain
Hormones irregular or absent periods, loss of libido, infertility
Kidneys dehydration, kidney failure
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Where To Get Help For Anorexia And What To Except
Anorexia nervosa is a serious, and sometimes lethal, physical and mental health condition that requires proper diagnosis and treatment. Once a diagnosis is established, a combination of psychotherapy, medical treatment, and nutrition counseling may be prescribed.
If youre not already working with a mental health care provider, you can start by speaking to your primary care physician. Describe your symptoms and the feelings that you associate with your behavior. It may be helpful to make a list of symptoms that you are experiencing before the appointment. Be sure to include all relevant personal information, like any family history of eating disorders, major stress, recent life changes, and a typical days eating patterns.
In addition to a physical exam, including tests to evaluate whether you are suffering any physical effects from binge eating, your PCP may ask questions about your daily food habits, your thoughts, and your thoughts and feelings about your weight and appearance. Dont hesitate to discuss your emotions, thoughts, or other information that may seem unrelated to binge eating it is important to give your provider a full picture of your mental and physical health.
If your physician suspects a diagnosis of anorexia, they should be able to refer you to a licensed mental health professional. It is important to seek treatment from someone with the appropriate education, training, and experience to treat your specific condition.
How Is Anorexia Diagnosed
A healthcare provider can diagnose a person with anorexia based on the criteria for anorexia nervosa listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders published by the American Psychiatric Association. The three criteria for anorexia nervosa under the DSM-5 include:
- Restriction of calorie consumption leading to weight loss or a failure to gain weight resulting in a significantly low body weight based on that persons age, sex, height and stage of growth.
- Intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat.
- Having a distorted view of themselves and their condition. In other words, the individual is unable to realistically assess their body weight and shape believes their appearance has a strong influence on their self-worth and denies the medical seriousness of their current low body weight and/or food restriction.
Even if all of the DSM-5 criteria for anorexia arent met, a person can still have a serious eating disorder. DSM-5 criteria classifies the severity of anorexia according to body mass index . Individuals who meet the criteria for anorexia but who arent underweight despite significant weight loss have whats known as atypical anorexia.
Diagnostic guidelines in the DSM-5 also allow healthcare providers to determine if a person is in partial remission or full remission as well as to specify the current severity of the condition based on body mass index .
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What If I Have An Eating Disorder
If you think you may have an eating disorder:
Tell someone. Tell a parent, teacher, counselor, or an adult you trust. Let them know what you’re going through. Ask them to help.
Get help early. When an eating disorder is caught early, a person has a better chance of recovery. Make an appointment with your doctor or an eating disorders specialist.
Go to all appointments. Treatment takes time and effort. Work hard to learn about yourself and your emotions. Ask questions any time you have them.
Be patient with yourself. There’s so much to learn, and change happens a little at a time. Take care of yourself and be with people who support you.
Signs & Symptoms Of Anorexia Nervosa
One of the most harmful misconceptions about Anorexia Nervosa is that all individuals that struggle are severely underweight. While this may be true for some, many people with Anorexia Nervosa can appear to be in good health, when in actuality they are malnourished. Therefore, its important to recognize all of the warning signs and symptoms associated with Anorexia Nervosa. While it is not a comprehensive list, the following symptoms are some of the most common among those experiencing Anorexia Nervosa:
- Significant weight loss/low body weight
- Distorted body image
- Fear of, or behavior interfering with, weight gain
- Preoccupation with weight, calories, food, etc.
- Feelings of guilt after eating
- Denial of severity of low weight
- High levels of anxiety and/or depression
- Low self-esteem
- Excuses for not eating/denial of hunger
- Food rituals
- Thin, dull and dry hair, skin and nails
- Cold intolerance/hypothermia
- Abuse of laxatives, diet pills and/or diuretics
- Excessive and compulsive exercise regimes
- Control issues
- Sleep difficulties
If you or a loved one is experiencing any of the above symptoms, we recommend seeking treatment from a specialized professional. The Alliance is here to help. Connect with us at Findedhelp.com to find eating disorder treatment options near you today or call us at 866-662-1235. For a complete guide to DSM-5 Diagnosis Criteria for Anorexia Nervosa, visit the NCBI website.
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How Do Eating Disorders Affect Health And Emotions
Eating disorders can cause serious problems throughout the body.
Anorexia can lead to health problems caused by undernutrition and low body weight, such as:
- low blood pressure
- feeling tired, weak, dizzy, or faint
- constipation and bloating
- autism spectrum disorder or attention deficit disorder
- problems at home and school because of eating behavior
If I Had An Eating Disorder In The Past Can I Still Get Pregnant
Yes. Women who have recovered from anorexia, are at a healthy weight, and have normal menstrual cycles have a better chance of getting pregnant and having a safe and healthy pregnancy.
If you had an eating disorder in the past, it may take you a little longer to get pregnant compared to women who never had an eating disorder.11
Tell your doctor if you had an eating disorder in the past and are trying to become pregnant.
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Can Anorexia Be Prevented
Although it might not be possible to prevent all cases of anorexia, its helpful to start treatment as soon as someone begins to have symptoms.
In addition, teaching and encouraging healthy eating habits and realistic attitudes about food and body image also might help prevent the development or worsening of eating disorders. If your child or family member decides to become vegetarian or vegan, for instance, its worth seeing a dietitian versed in eating disorders and touching base with your pediatrician or healthcare provider to make sure that this change occurs without a loss in nutrients.
Warning Signs Of Anorexia In Someone Else
The following warning signs could show that someone else has an eating disorder:
- dramatic weight loss
- lying about how much and when they’ve eaten, or how much they weigh
- avoiding eating with others
- cutting their food into small pieces
- eating very slowly to disguise how little they are eating
- trying to hide how thin they are by wearing loose or baggy clothes
- frequent weighing
Warning signs of anorexia in children
- Growth spurt may be delayed in children with anorexia
- Weight gain may be less than expected
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What Is Binge Eating Disorder
Binge eating disorder is the most common eating disorder, involving episodes of extreme overeating. Both males and females are affected, and most of those affected are overweight or obese. Unlike bulimia, there is no association with purging the excess calories by vomiting, fasting, or intense exercise. Binge eating disorder can occur at any age, but it is often diagnosed in middle-aged people. This condition can cause serious problems.
Binge Eating Disorder Complications
How To Know Whether It Is An Eating Disorder
It can sometimes be difficult to distinguish between the signs and symptoms of an eating disorder and those of Crohns disease. Eating disorders and Crohns disease can both affect someones eating and bowel habits. Both can cause gastrointestinal symptoms, weight loss, and malnutrition.
MNT connected with Jennifer Diggs to learn how to recognize a potential eating disorder in people with Crohns disease. She is a registered dietitian at Mymee, an organization that provides specialized care for people with autoimmune diseases.
Diggs shared the following warning signs of an eating disorder:
- poor eating during meals
- excessive restriction of food, beyond what is beneficial for managing Crohns disease
- fixation on a certain food or food group, to the neglect of others
- excessive trips to the bathroom following meals
- avoidance of social or celebratory meals with family or friends
- hiding or lying about eating habits
- taking medication or smoking to suppress the appetite
Although some fluctuations in body weight often occur during flare-ups or remissions of Crohns disease, continued weight loss or gain is another potential sign of an eating disorder.
Excessive concern about body shape, weight, or both is also common in people with eating disorders. However, a person with ARFID or binge eating disorder might not have this symptom.
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What Tests Are Used To Diagnose Or Assess Anorexia
Although there are no laboratory tests to specifically diagnose anorexia, a healthcare provider may use various diagnostic tests, such as blood tests, to rule out any medical conditions that could cause weight loss and to evaluate the physical damage weight loss and starvation may have caused.
Tests to rule out weight-loss causing illness or to assess anorexia side effects may include:
- Vitamin D levels.
- A pregnancy test in people assigned female at birth who are of childbearing age.
- Hormone tests if evidence of menstrual problems in people assigned female at birth and measuring testosterone in people assigned male at birth.
How Many Calories Consumed Is Considered Anorexia
There is not one specific number of calories that we see in anorexia. It is the complex relationship between calories, psychological factors, exercise and body image that will determine an anorexia diagnosis.
Calories are low enough to warrant concern for anorexia when:
- Calories fall significantly below the demand needed to carry out daily activities.
- Excessive exercise leads to an extreme calorie deficit
- Someone is actively engaged in binging and restricting
Calorie needs will vary greatly based on someones gender, exercise level, body weight and height.
Therefore, it would be impossible to determine an exact calorie number associated with anorexia.
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How Are Eating Disorders Treated
Eating disorders are best treated by a team that includes a doctor, dietitian, and therapist. Treatment includes nutrition counseling, medical care, and talk therapy . The doctor might prescribe medicine to treat binge eating, anxiety, depression, or other mental health concerns.
The details of the treatment depend on the type of eating disorder and how severe it is. Some people are hospitalized because of extreme weight loss and medical complications.
Anorexia Nervosa Restricting Type
Restricting Type is the subtype of anorexia most commonly known. Individuals diagnosed with Restricting Type cannot have engaged in episodes of binge eating or purging within three months of diagnosis, and their present with weight loss is accomplished primarily through dieting, fasting, and excessive exercise .
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Anorexia Nervosa In Males
Even though amenorrhea is currently a criterion for the diagnosis of Anorexia Nervosa, the calorie restricting behaviors present in this eating disorder are not exclusive to females. Males can also experience eating disorders that present like Anorexia Nervosa, though males will never experience amenorrhea and thus can never achieve a diagnosis of Anorexia Nervosa under the current diagnostic criteria. For this reason, this particular diagnosis criterion may be eliminated in the next edition of the DSM.
According to the National Institutes of Mental Health , the lifetime prevalence of Anorexia Nervosa in U.S. adults is 0.6%. Females have a higher lifetime prevalence of 0.9% while males have a lower lifetime prevalence of 0.3%.