Monday, November 28, 2022

Which Of The Following Is True Of Bipolar Disorder

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Signs You Are Not Going Crazy

Bipolar II Disorder in a Minute

How to find out if I am not losing my mind? That is a question many of you might have. So, here is the answer. If you have the following three signs, the chances of you being insane are pretty thin and dismissible.

You know what is right and wrong. If you can make rational decisions, you do not need to ask, Am I crazy? Psychosis and other severe mental conditions leave people with the inability to do everyday tasks. And people with such conditions often find it difficult to say what is good or bad for them.

You determine reality from fantasy. You do not need to be concerned about going insane if you are not living in an altered reality. Most insane people seem entirely disconnected from real life. And they tend to believe their delusional or illusional thoughts to be true.

You are worried about your mental health. Even the fact that you wonder, Am I crazy? is a positive sign. Insanity reduces self-awareness. So, you would not be able to ask such self-oriented questions if you were out of your mind or mad.

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Which Of The Following Is True Of Bipolar Disorder

A. The most extreme symptoms of bipolar disorder are hallucinations and delusions, but these symptoms often go unrecognized. B. Medication is the most effective treatment for bipolar disorder. C. Treatment of bipolar disorder should include dialectical behavior therapy. D. All of the above..

What Can I Expect After Treatment

For most people, a good treatment program can stabilize severe moods and provide effective symptom relief. Treatment that is continual has proven more effective in preventing relapses. Those who also have a substance abuse problem may need more specialized treatment.

Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 01/27/2018.

References

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How Are Mood Disorders Treated

Treatment will depend on the specific illness and symptoms that are present. Usually, therapy involves a combination of medication and psychotherapy . Therapy sessions may be conducted by a psychologist, psychiatrist, or other health professional.

Medications to treat depression and/or bipolar disorders

Psychotherapy

Patients with depression and other mood disorders may benefit from various types of psychotherapy or counseling sessions. Types of therapy include:

  • Cognitive-behavioral therapy
  • Problem-solving therapy

Brain stimulation therapies

Brain stimulation therapies are thought to work by causing changes in the chemicals in the brain that are known to be associated with symptoms of depression and bipolar disorders. There are several types of brain stimulation therapies including:

Treatments for seasonal depression

Antidepressant medications, such as SSRIs and bupropion, and psychotherapy are used to treat seasonal affective disorder. In addition, patients may benefit from light therapy and vitamin D supplements.

  • Light therapy – This technique has long been used to treat SAD. It is based on the idea of supplementing natural sunlight with bright artificial light during the fall and winter. Patients may use a light box that provides cool-white fluorescent light. Each morning, the person is exposed to the artificial light for about 20 to 60 minutes. The light is about 20 times more intense than regular indoor lighting.

What Bipolar Disorder Means

PPT

Bipolar disorder is a mood disorder where extreme changes in mood and energy levels occur, which include manic episodes and depressive symptoms. Bipolar disorder is also called manic depression, since people who are affected by this disorder experience both depressive and manic episodes. __% of people with bipolar disorder also encounter suicidal thoughts or actions..

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How Do You Explain Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar disorder is a chronic mental illness and is one of the most common types of mental illness. It affects people of all ages and economic status. Bipolar disorder is also known as manic-depressive illness. A person affected by the disorder experiences extreme mood swings from mania, to depression. The person experiences these mood swings over a period of time. This disorder runs in families. If a relative has this disorder, you are __% more likely to develop it too. The symptoms of bipolar disorder include:.

Bipolar Disorder: Myths And Facts

Myth: Bipolar disorder cannot be diagnosed as easily as physical illness.

Fact: Bipolar disorder can be diagnosed similarly to physical illnesses. While there are no physical tests that can reveal the disorder, the diagnosis of bipolar illness is based on standard criteria. An accurate diagnosis of a bipolar illness is made by using the tools of a medical and psychiatric history, self-reported symptoms, observable behavior, input from friends and family, family medical history and specific psychiatric rating scales.

Myth: Children do not get bipolar disorder.

Fact: Bipolar disorder can occur in children as young as age six. It is more likely to affect children of parents who have bipolar disorder. Children tend to have very fast mood swings between depression and mania many times during the day whereas adults tend to experience intense moods for weeks or months at a time. NoteBipolar disorder can best be diagnosed after examination of historical behaviour patterns. Parents should attempt to get independent verification and consider carefully any such diagnosis of a very young child.

Myth: It is impossible to help someone with bipolar disorder.

Myth: Bipolar disorder is a figment of ones imagination.

Fact: Bipolar disorder is a treatable brain disorder that is real and can cause a lot of suffering, especially if it is not well managed. Individuals cannot just snap out of it! Recovery takes time and hard work.

Myth: People who have bipolar disorder cannot work.

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Bipolar Disorder Includes Manic Episodes Followed By

Manic episodes frequently alternate with depressive episodes. In fact, depression occurs more often than mania in many people with bipolar disorder. Sometimes they feel very happy and “up,” and are much more active than usual. This is called mania. Other times, people with bipolar disorder feel very sad or “down.” This is called depression. Bipolar disorder can also cause marked changes in energy and behavior.Characteristics of depressive episodes include a number of the following symptoms: persistently depressed or irritable mood decreased interest in previously pleasurable activities change or problems in appetite, weight, or sleep agitation or lack of activity fatigue feelings of worthlessness trouble concentrating thoughts of death or suicidal thoughts, plans or actions.

What Causes Mood Disorders

“The Study of Bipolar Disorder is the Study of Humanity”

There may be several underlying factors, depending on the type of the disorder. Various genetic, biological, environmental, and other factors have been associated with mood disorders.

Risk factors include:

  • Previous diagnosis of a mood disorder
  • Trauma, stress or major life changes in the case of depression
  • Physical illness or use of certain medications. Depression has been linked to major diseases such as cancer, diabetes, Parkinsons disease and heart disease.
  • Brain structure and function in the case of bipolar disorder

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Bipolar Disorder And Relationships

Bipolar disorder can affect any of your relationships. But these effects might show up most clearly in your closest relationships, like those with family members and romantic partners.

When it comes to managing a relationship while living with bipolar disorder, honesty can always help. Being open about your condition can help your partner better understand your symptoms and how they can offer support.

You might consider starting with a few basic details, including:

  • how long youve had the condition
  • how episodes of depression usually affect you
  • how episodes of mania usually affect you
  • your treatment approach, including therapy, medication, and coping strategies
  • anything they can do to help

Want more tips on maintaining a healthy relationship when you or a partner has bipolar disorder? Our guide can help.

What Are The Different Types Of Mood Disorders

These are the most common types of mood disorders:

  • Major depression. Having less interest in usual activities, feeling sad or hopeless, and other symptoms for at least 2 weeks may indicate depression.

  • Dysthymia. This is a chronic, low-grade, depressed, or irritable mood that lasts for at least 2 years.

  • Bipolar disorder. This is a condition in which a person has periods of depression alternating with periods of mania or elevated mood.

  • Mood disorder related to another health condition. Many medical illnesses can trigger symptoms of depression.

  • Substance-induced mood disorder. Symptoms of depression that are due to the effects of medicine, drug abuse, alcoholism, exposure to toxins, or other forms of treatment.

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What Risks And Complications Can Bipolar Disorder Cause

There can be complications and risks for people who live with bipolar disorder. But these risks can be lessened with the right support and treatment.

What about suicide and self-harm?

You might have an illness where you experience psychosis, such as schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Your risk of suicide is estimated to be between 5% and 6% higher than the general population.

You are more likely to try to take your own life if you have a history of attempted suicide and depression. It is important that you get the right treatment for your symptoms of depression and have an up to date crisis plan.

There is also research that suggests you are 30% 40% more likely to self-harm if you live with bipolar disorder.

What about financial risk?

If you have mania or hypomania you may struggle to manage your finances. You may spend lots of money without thinking about the effect that it may have on your life.

You could make a Lasting Power of Attorney. This is a legal process. This means that you pick someone that you trust to manage your finances if you lack mental capacity to manage them by yourself.

You can work with your carer and mental health team. You can form an action plan. This can say what they can do if you have a period of mania or hypomania and you start to make poor financial decisions.

What about physical health risk?

What about alcohol and drugs risk?

If you want advice or help with alcohol or drug use contact your GP.

What about driving risk?

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Schizophrenia And Other Psychoses

Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder, affecting 20 million people worldwide1. Psychoses, including schizophrenia, are characterized by distortions in thinking, perception, emotions, language, sense of self and behaviour. Common psychotic experiences include hallucinations and delusions . The disorder can make it difficult for people affected to work or study normally.

Stigma and discrimination can result in a lack of access to health and social services. Furthermore, people with psychosis are at high risk of exposure to human rights violations, such as long-term confinement in institutions.

Schizophrenia typically begins in late adolescence or early adulthood. Treatment with medicines and psychosocial support is effective. With appropriate treatment and social support, affected people can lead a productive life and be integrated in society. Facilitation of assisted living, supported housing and supported employment can act as a base from which people with severe mental disorders, including schizophrenia, can achieve numerous recovery goals as they often face difficulty in obtaining or retaining a place to live and normal employment.

Which Of The Following Statements Is True Of Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar disorder is a neurobiological illness that typically presents in late adolescence or early adulthood and is characterized by recurrent periods of both depression and mania. Bipolar disorder is a brain disorder. The causes of bipolar disorder are thought to be a combination of genetic or biological factors and life experiences..

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Limitations Of The Study

Several limitations should be considered when interpreting the findings of this paper. First, as the study recruited individuals from within bipolar disorder pedigrees, the results may not be generalisable to other populations the major depressive disorder cases included here are not representative of major depressive disorder in general. Despite this, many findings that have previously been reported in the broader clinical literature on bipolar and unipolar depression were replicated in this genetically defined sample, wherein the shared genetic origins would be expected to diminish the likelihood of demonstrating such differences. Second, the sample size, although consistent with many other comparative studies, was not large enough to enable analysis of the bipolar type 1 and type 2 groups separately. The few studies that have separately examined the two types suggest that there may be important differences between them compared with major depressive disorder. Third, this validation of the probabilistic approach was limited, as not all variables included in the original list operational criteria could be included because of the limitations of the version of the DIGS used in this data-set. Finally, the assessment of depressive features was retrospective, as it was premised on the most severe lifetime episode.

Which Of The Following Best Describes The Symptoms Of Bipolar Ii Disorder

Changing Minds: Mark’s Story (Bipolar Disorder)

Bipolar II disorder causes patients to experience episodes of depression and hypomania . Unipolar depression is characterised by a low mood that lasts for weeks or months. Hypomania is a mild form of mania, which is characterised by hyperactivity, rapid speech, and an inflated sense of self-esteem..

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Antidepressants For Bipolar Depression

Ease and relative safety of treating depressive episodes with modern antidepressants, and strenuous efforts to minimize or avoid depression by BD patients and clinicians, have made antidepressants the leading treatment provided to BD patients . Nevertheless, there is a striking paucity of therapeutic experimentation and inconsistent findings, despite more than a half-century of use of antidepressant drugs to treat depression, with particularly serious gaps regarding dysthymia and dysphoria, mixed features, and long-term prophylaxis for bipolar depression . Many experts advise caution in using antidepressants, particularly for BD-I patients to avoid potentially dangerous mood-switches, and encourage their use, if necessary, only with mood-stabilizing agents or SGAs, and without current mixed features or agitation .

Key Diagnostic Criteria Distinguishing Bipolar I Disorder From Bipolar Ii Disorder

Manic episode 2

Distinct period during which there is an abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable mood and abnormally and persistently increased goal-directed activity or energy lasting at least 1 wk .

Must be accompanied by at least three of the following symptoms : Inflated self-esteem or grandiosity, decreased need for sleep, pressured speech, racing thoughts, distractibility, increased involvement in goal-directed activity or psychomotor agitation, excessive involvement in pleasurable activities with a high potential for painful consequences.

Symptoms do not meet criteria for a mixed episode.

Disturbance must be sufficiently severe to cause marked impairment in social or occupational functioning or to require hospitalization, or it is characterized by the presence of psychotic features.

Symptoms not due to direct physiologic effect of medication, general medication condition, or substance abuse, although if they persist after a direct condition is addressed, a primary bipolar condition should be considered.

Hypomanic episode

David Spelber, … Charles B. Nemeroff, in, 2021

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Lithium Treatment And Suicide

An association of reduced risk of suicides and attempts during long-term treatment with lithium in BD is supported consistently by most , but not all studies . At least 10 placebo-controlled, randomized trials not specifically designed with suicide risk as the primary outcome measure, but involving more than 110,000 person-years of risk, found five- to sixfold reductions in suicidal acts . Based on such studies, several expert reports recommend long-term lithium treatment to limit risk of suicidal behavior in BD patients .

What Are The Symptoms Of Mood Disorders

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Depending on age and the type of mood disorder, a person may have different symptoms of depression. The following are the most common symptoms of a mood disorder:

  • Ongoing sad, anxious, or empty mood

  • Feeling hopeless or helpless

  • Feeling inadequate or worthless

  • Excessive guilt

  • Repeating thoughts of death or suicide, wishing to die, or attempting suicide

  • Loss of interest in usual activities or activities that were once enjoyed, including sex

  • Relationship problems

  • Trouble sleeping or sleeping too much

  • Changes in appetite and/or weight

  • Trouble concentrating

  • A decrease in the ability to make decisions

  • Frequent physical complaints that dont get better with treatment

  • Running away or threats of running away from home

  • Very sensitive to failure or rejection

  • Irritability, hostility, or aggression

In mood disorders, these feelings are more intense than what a person may normally feel from time to time. Its also of concern if these feelings continue over time, or interfere with one’s interest in family, friends, community, or work. Any person who expresses thoughts of suicide should get medical help right away.

The symptoms of mood disorders may look like other conditions or mental health problems. Always talk with a healthcare provider for a diagnosis.

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Why Is Bipolar Disorder So Difficult To Diagnose Accurately

Bipolar disorder types I and II are especially difficult to diagnose accurately in clinical practice, particularly in their early stages. Only 20% of patients with bipolar disorder who are experiencing a depressive episode are diagnosed with the disorder within the first year of seeking treatment, and the mean delay between illness onset and diagnosis is 510 years. A major reason for the difficult diagnosis is the challenge of differentiating bipolar disorder type I or II from unipolar depressionan illness characterised by recurrent depressive episodes especially in patients who present during a depressive episode and in those with no clear history of mania or hypomania., Unipolar depression is reportedly the most frequent misdiagnosis in patients with bipolar disorder, especially in bipolar disorder type II, because patients with this illness, by definition, never experience an episode of mania .

Mood changes over time in bipolar disorder type I, bipolar disorder type II, and recurrent unipolar depressive disorder

M=mania. m=hypomania. D=depression.

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