What Is Bipolar 1 Disorder
You must have had at least one manic episode to be diagnosed with bipolar 1 disorder. A person with bipolar 1 disorder may or may not have a major depressive episode. The symptoms of a manic episode may be so severe that you require hospital care.
Manic episodes are usually characterized by the following:
- exceptional energy
The symptoms of a manic episode tend to be so obvious and intrusive that theres little doubt that something is wrong.
Other Terms Related To Bipolar Disorder
You may hear people use the terms rapid cycling, mixed episode, or mixed features to describe an individuals bipolar disorder. These are not separate types of bipolar disorder. They are symptoms that may appear in any type of bipolar disorder.
Rapid cycling is when a person experiences four or more episodes of mania or depression in one year. Rapid cycling may occur in any kind of bipolar disorder and may come and go throughout the course of ones life.
Its also possible to experience mania and depression at the same time. This is called a mixed episode, or an episode with mixed features.
How Common Is Bipolar Disorder
About 1 in every 100 adults is likely to have bipolar I disorder. When including bipolar II disorder and the milder forms, the prevalence goes up to about 4 in every 100 adults.1
1. Merikangas KR, Pato M. Recent Developments in the Epidemiology of Bipolar Disorder in Adults and Children: Magnitude, Correlates, and Future Directions. Clin Psychol-Sci Pr 2009; 16: 121-133.
Recognizing The Different Types Of Bipolar Disorder
Bipolar disorder, to put it simply, is a brain disorder causing unusual mood changes and shifts in energy and level of activity. These moods are known as manic, hypomanic, and depressive episodes. But is there just one type of bipolar disorder to fit all cases? No, much like other mental illnesses such as anxiety, which includes types such as generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety, and panic disorder, there are different types of classifications of bipolar disorder.
Dive in headfirst and start reading to understand the different moods in bipolar disorders and how each type of bipolar disorder presents itself and how they are treated.
Bipolar Disorder And Co
It is common for various mental illnesses to occur alongside other disorders. For example, about half of mental disorder patients have a substance abuse disorder.
Overlapping bipolar spectrum conditions include ADHD, Borderline Personality Disorder , and eating disorders. You can also count other anxiety disorders.
Such comorbid conditions complicate the treatment process. They may also increase the effect of the symptoms. In worst-case scenarios, they may increase the likelihood of suicide.
Are There Other Types Of Bipolar Disorder
There are two other types of bipolar disorder, but they are far less common than bipolar I and II.
Cyclothymic Disorder is a milder form of bipolar. Moods fluctuate between short-but-distinct periods of hypomania and low levels of depression. In order for a diagnosis of cyclothymic disorder, symptoms must be evident for at least two years. People with cyclothymic disorder can have stable moods for long periods of time, then experience cyclical mood swings of peaks and dips.
Other Specified and Unspecified Bipolar and Related Disorders has no specific criteria for diagnosis. Its more of a catch-all phrase of symptoms that are similar to bipolar disorder but do not meet the full criteria. People with this diagnosis experience signs of mania or hypomania and depression but the episodes are too short to be considered bipolar I or II or cyclothymic disorder.
Remember: No matter what type of bipolar you or someone you know has been diagnosed with, there is hope. With the right treatment and lifestyle adjustments, most people with bipolar can be happy and productive.
What Is Bipolar I
Bipolar I disorder is the most intense type of bipolar. Manic episodes last at least seven days or are often so severe that the person needs to be hospitalized immediately.
The key to recognizing a bipolar I manic episode: Its so extreme that it interferes with a persons day-to-day activities. Despite tremendous efforts, its difficult, if not impossible, to divert someone in a manic state into a more rational one.
The manic state of bipolar I includes any or all of the following symptoms:
Its important to note that if someone is talking nonsense or acting oddly because of alcohol or drugs , its not considered a manic state. That said, someone in a manic state is more likely to use drugs and alcohol to excess, thereby worsening their level of functioning. It can be very challenging to determine which factorsthe bipolar mania or the substance useare primarily to blame for the persons problems..
Pnp Bipolar Junction Transistor
In PNP transistor the current is conducted by holes as majority charges carriers as well as electrons are minority charges carriers.
The PNP transistor consist two p type semiconductor materials which are separated by thin layer of n type semiconductor.
The PNP transistor has three terminal Emitter, Base and Collector. It has two PN junctions namely Base to Emitter junction and Collector to Base junction .
PNP Bipolar Junction Transistor
The working of PNP transistor is essentially similarly to NPN transistor.
Fig. shows an NPN transistor in forward biased mode, i.e. the emitter to base junction of a transistor is forward biased by a battery VEE the collector to base junction is reverse biased by a battery VCC.
If the voltage VEB exceeds the barrier potential which is 0.7 V for silicon and 0.3 V for germanium transistors then emitter to base junction is forward biased.
In forward biased on the emitter base junction due to majority carriers that is holes in the emitter region to flow towards the base region. This constitutes the emitter current IE.
After crossing the emitter to base junction holes reach the base region and combine with majority carriers that is holes which presence in the base region. The holes are combine with the free electrons in the base and the current flowing though it is called as base current IB .
Most of the holes are not combine with the electrons in the base region. This is because of the base is lightly doped and very thin.
How To Diagnose Bipolar Disorder
Bipolar disorder can be difficult to diagnose because an individuals mood swings can vary. And yet, the longer it goes untreated, the worse the disorder can get as episodes may happen more frequently or become more extreme.
As mentioned, a diagnosis of bipolar I requires a person to have either one or more manic episodes or mixed episodes. Bipolar II, on the other hand, involves one or more depressive episodes and at least one episode of hypomania.
If a person is experiencing symptoms of bipolar disorder, it is important to see a licensed healthcare professional. Seeking professional help ensures that the person will get an accurate diagnosis and receive correct, individualized treatment. The right treatment for bipolar disorder can make it possible for a person to lead a healthy and productive life.
The evaluation for bipolar disorder is examined through several tests and exams and may include:
Bipolar I Disorder: Definition Causes Symptoms And Treatment
Bipolar 1 disorder goes by the name manic-depressive disorder. The pronunciation is bipolar one.
A person must experience at least one manic episode to have the bipolar 1 classification. They must also have a depressive episode at some stage. The depressive episodes last longer than the manic ones.
Manic episodes progress from the hypomanic stage to full-blown mania. Thus, the patient has the atypical elevated mood and energy. Experiencing one manic episode is the key to making an accurate diagnosis.
Later, the individual may cycle through the manic and depressive phases. This causes a disruption in their lives. Their mood may go from feeling euphoric to being irritable. Add the reckless behavior and this disorder can have serious repercussions.
For example, people in the manic phase might feel overconfident. They might carry themselves in a grandiose manner. As such, this might lead them to spend all their money to match their perceived status.
Untreated manic episodes last for weeks or months. Thereafter, the depressive phase takes over. These depressive episodes have the same symptoms as clinical depression.
Psychosis: Symptoms, and Causes
In dire circumstances, the manic episodes may trigger psychosis. In this state, the individual is no longer in touch with reality. It ranges from engaging in abnormal behavior to being in a disturbed mental state.
Diagnosing and Treating Bipolar I Disorder
What Are The Signs Of Depression
With both bipolar I and bipolar II, the depression is the same. Symptoms may include:
Feeling sad. Often, you dont want to do anythingincluding activities you once loved. You can feel hopeless, empty, and unworthy.
Endless exhaustion. People who are depressed feel so lethargic they dont even get out of bed, even after a full eight hours of shuteye.
Sleep issues. If you’re depressed, you may have difficulty falling asleep or may wake up before morning, unable to fall back to sleep. Or you might snooze too much, because a full nights rest doesnt feel like enough.
Difficulty concentrating. Simple questions seem too much to think about.
Appetite changes. People in a depressed state can eat either too much or too little.
Suicidal thoughts. The depression can get so bad, people with depression may even contemplate suicide. If this is you, contact a professional immediately, or call the National Suicide Prevention Hotline at 1-800-273-8255.
To read more about the symptoms of depression , .
Bipolar 1 Vs Bipolar 2
All types of bipolar disorder are characterized by episodes of extreme mood. The highs are known as manic episodes. The lows are known as depressive episodes.
The main difference between bipolar 1 and bipolar 2 disorders lies in the severity of the manic episodes caused by each type.
A person with bipolar 1 will experience a full manic episode, while a person with bipolar 2 will experience only a hypomanic episode .
A person with bipolar 1 may or may not experience a major depressive episode, while a person with bipolar 2 will experience a major depressive episode.
What Is Euphoric Mania
Euphoric mania is just like it sounds- people describe it as wonderful, beautiful, unbelievable, fantastic and expansive. As Teri Cheney, the author of the memoir Manic puts it, “Everything becomes interesting.”
Many people with Bipolar II hypomania really enjoy euphoric feelings, but many mistakes can be made when a person feels too good, such as recklessly spending too much money, having sex with anyone who looks appealing, sleeping a lot less and not getting tired and ultimately making very poor life decisions.
Full-blown euphoric mania in Bipolar I is far more dangerous. This mania can become over-the-top grandiose mania where a person believes they are superhuman and the greatest person in their profession. Thoughts such as I’m a genius or I’m a goddess and the most beautiful person in the room can be quite destructive if a person arrogantly acts out these thoughts. It’s common for people with full-blown euphoric mania to stay up for weeks, start very risky businesses or simply pick up and leave their current life.
What Does Bipolar Disorder Look Like Generally
Mood swings are as human as pooping and social media-ing. But when attitude shifts and irregularities in behavior become regular, intense, and noticeable, theyre no longer typical mood swingsand it’s possible you could have bipolar disorder. Depending on the severity of the condition, bipolar can mess with your relationships, your job, and even your day-to-day functioning. That said: Being aware of your situation and taking medication go a long way, and when in treatment, most people with bipolar disorder can have meaningful relationships and a fulfilling life.
More specifics about what makes bipolar, well, bipolar: It involves consummate highscalled maniaand very low lows, or depression. Because depression can factor into other diagnoses, you must have had at least one manic episode to get a diagnosis of bipolar. At that point, your doctor or psychiatrist will ask additional questions to determine which type of bipolar you have.
Bipolar Disorder Type I
Bipolar disorder type I is thought of as classic bipolar disorder, perhaps because it was identified the earliest. In bipolar disorder type I, the person experiences elevated mood states known as manias and low mood states known as depressions . A person with bipolar disorder type I may also experience periods with few-to-no symptoms and these are known as euthymia. Bipolar disorder type I is also often accompanied by psychosis .
How Often Do Bipolar Episodes Occur
This can depend on a lot of things, such as:
- your exact diagnosis
- how well you’re able to manage your symptoms
- whether certain situations or experiences can trigger your episodes (for example, you might find that getting very
- little sleep while going through a stressful life event could trigger an episode of mania)
- how you define an episode personally
What’s normal for you can also change over time. However, many people find that:
- mania can start suddenly and last between two weeks and four or five months
- depressive episodes can last longer sometimes for several months
You may be told your bipolar is rapid cycling if you have experienced four or more depressive, manic, hypomanic or mixed episodes within a year. This might mean you feel stable for a few weeks between episodes, or that your mood can change as quickly as within the same day, or even the same hour.
Currently, rapid cycling is not officially considered a separate type of bipolar disorder, but more research is needed to know for sure or to better understand it.
For more information on rapid cycling, see the Bipolar UK website.
“It’s a lot harder coming to terms with being stable than I could have imagined. I’ve had to struggle with a ‘new’ identity and way of life after spending so many years thinking the ups and downs of bipolar are ‘normal’.”
Bipolar Disorder: How Many Types Are There
July 31, 2017
Bipolar Spectrum Disorder , previously known as manic-depressive illness, is a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in mood, energy, activity levels, and the ability to carry out day-to-day tasks. These shifts are more severe than the normal ups and downs that are experienced by everyone.
According to the Center for Disease Control , BSD affects nearly 4 percent of Americans in any given year and seems to have been increasing over the last few decades. Additionally, BSD is more common in women than men, with a ratio of approximately 3:2. There is no one cause of BSD, although research indicates it does run in families.
There are, in fact, at least four distinct types of BSD: bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, cyclothymic disorder, and bipolar disorder not otherwise specified. The distinction between the types is related to the severity of the symptoms some people suffer with mild mood swings while others have trouble staying out of hospitals or jails.
Some of the core symptoms often associated with BSD includes periods of:
- Abnormally elevated, depressed, or anxious mood
- Decreased need for sleep, feeling energetic on dramatically less sleep than usual
- Grandiose notions, ideas or plans
- Increased talking or pressured speech
- Too many thoughts racing though the mind
- Markedly increased energy
- Irritability or aggression
- Delusional or psychotic thinking
Here are just a few of the valuable things you will learn:
What Are The Different Types Of Bipolar Disorder
There are three main types of bipolar disorder bipolar I, bipolar II, and cyclothymic disorder.
Bipolar I disorder
Bipolar I diagnosis involves having severe manic episodes that last at least seven days or require hospitalization. Depressive episodes are also seen and last for two weeks. There may be periods of normal moods between these two episodes.
Bipolar II disorder
Bipolar II involves a current or past major depressive episode lasting for at least two weeks. The person must also have had a current or past episode of hypomania. Women have a higher risk than men to develop bipolar II disorder.
Patients may experience ongoing bipolar symptoms that do not meet the full criteria for a bipolar I or bipolar II diagnosis. Cyclothymic disorder is a less severe form of bipolar disorder. It may cause frequent episodes of hypomanic and depressive symptoms, but they are not severe. Symptoms generally persist for around two years.
Types Of Bipolar Disorder
The potential number of so-called types of bipolar disorder depends on how one defines a type.
The American Psychiatric Association depicts only two major types of bipolar disorder; however, it also recognizes a number of different presentations of bipolar disorder that many might consider to be different types of bipolar disorder. These different presentations focus on some of the predominant symptoms that occur in the individual expression of bipolar disorder and are referred to in diagnostic processes as specifiers; as special presentations of symptoms that resemble bipolar disorder, but are caused by drugs or medical conditions; or represent other clinical observations that present with bipolar-like symptoms but do not meet the formal diagnostic criteria for any type of bipolar disorder.
The two major types of bipolar disorder are:
- Bipolar I: This type of bipolar disorder is diagnosed when the person is formally diagnosed with at least one full manic episode. The individual may not have displayed any clinical depression and may have experienced past episodes of hypomania; however, whenever a full manic episode is diagnosed, the individual is automatically diagnosed with this type of bipolar disorder.
- Bipolar II:This type of bipolar disorder is diagnosed when the individual has only displayed formal hypomanic episodes. They may or may not have displayed episodes of depression, but they have never displayed a full manic episode.
What Is Bipolar I Disorder
Bipolar I disorder is a form of mental illness. A person affected by bipolar I disorder has had at least one manic episode in their life. A manic episode is a period of abnormally elevated or irritable mood and high energy, accompanied by abnormal behavior that disrupts life.
Most people with bipolar I disorder also suffer from episodes of depression. Often, there is a pattern of cycling between mania and depression. This is where the term “manic depression” comes from. In between episodes of mania and depression, many people with bipolar I disorder can live normal lives.
Symptoms That Lead To A Diagnosis
If youre suffering from any kind of mental health disorder, its important that you identify and understand your symptoms in order for our doctors to correctly diagnose you. Bipolar disorder consists of both manic and depressive episodes that create an unstable mood.
Mania can be extreme changes in mood, or you can have hypomania which is typically less severe. Symptoms of mania include:
Difficulty sleeping Extreme energy Increased self-esteem Difficulty concentrating Racing thoughts
On the opposite end of the spectrum, depression can change your emotional highs to hopeless lows. If you have bipolar disorder with depression, symptoms you may experience include:
Fatigue Sadness Decreased energy Overeating or loss of appetite Suicidal thoughts
Our team at Boston MindCare take a detailed history to decipher your symptoms and give you a definitive diagnosis. With that, we can also form a customized treatment plan for you.
Causes Of Bipolar Disorder
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , bipolar disorders average start is 25 years.
Though it is more common in women, men have an earlier onset of the disease. Women may start with a depressive phase while men may start with a manic episode.
Doctors dont know the exact cause of this disorder. Even so, the likely causes are:
- Genetic factors and family history
- Stressful or traumatic events
- Presence of another anxiety disorder, such as depression
- Biological or neurological changes, for example, due to hormonal imbalances
- Environmental factors, such as having a bipolar parent
Various studies show certain genes increase the chance of having the disease. As for family history, many bipolar patients have someone in the family who has the disease as well. To be clear, having this family history does not mean the illness will occur.
Stressful events could involve death or being in an abusive relationship. They could involve suffering long-term illness. Such events trigger immense grief, pain, and even illness due to a weakened immune system.
Over time, this stress becomes chronic and starts affecting other areas of the persons life. Signs of this appear as anxiety, weight gain, affected memory, and high blood pressure.
Unfortunately, bipolar disorder lasts a lifetime. As such, patients must learn how to manage their symptoms. If not, they could become a danger to themselves and others.
Unspecified Bipolar Disorder: Definition Causes Symptoms And Treatment
Some bipolar disorders dont have a specific pattern. They also dont match the other three disorders. Yet, they still have to meet the criteria for abnormal mood changes.
The subtypes of bipolar disorder are bipolar 4 and 5. They are subthreshold types of disorder. This means their symptoms are not as pronounced.
Bipolar IV Disorder
In this subtype, hypomanic and manic episodes come from taking antidepressant drugs. Doctors prescribe antidepressant medication to treat other types of mental illness. Unfortunately, this can trigger bipolar disorder.
Patients must then learn to cope with the manic and depressive feelings. They must learn to avoid substances like alcohol as well.
Bipolar V Disorder
This subtype involves people who have genetic bipolar disorder. The patient only suffers from major depression despite a family history of bipolar disorder.
Difference Between Type 1 And Type 2
The main difference between type 1 and type 2 bipolar is full manic episodes. Bipolar II patients dont go beyond hypomania. Second, bipolar II disorder has more frequent cycling than bipolar I disorder. It also has a more chronic course than type 1.
When it comes to diagnosis, it is much easier to confirm bipolar 1 than bipolar 2. This is because type 1 looks for evidence of a manic episode. Type 2 depends on identifying hypomania after emerging from a depressive state.
Bipolar II patients are more likely to commit suicide than those with bipolar I disorder.
Major Depressive Episode Symptoms
The third symptom of bipolar disorder is depression, which can severely impact a persons daily life. A person is experiencing a major depressive episode if they are experiencing five or more of the following symptoms:
- Severe loss of interest or feeling no pleasure in normal activities
- Noticeable weight loss when not trying to lose weight, weight gain, or changes in appetite
- Feeling sad, empty, hopeless, or teary all the time. In children/teens, this depressed mood can present as irritability
- Sleeping too much or not being able to sleep, as with insomnia
- Having less energy or always feeling tired
- Feeling worthless or overly guilty
- Struggling to concentrate or make decisions
- Feeling suicidal or having suicidal thoughts
Are you in a crisis?
While bipolar disorder can cause a person to feel depressed, this condition is not the same as getting diagnosed with depression. Bipolar disorder is marked by periods of two extremes: Mania or hypomania, the up, and major depressive episodes, the down. In contrast, depression causes moods and emotions that are always down without any moments of high energy.
Symptoms Of Bipolar Disorder
Lets examine the symptoms of bipolar extreme highs and lows. There are three types of episodes with bipolar that help examine both the severity of the episode and the symptoms experienced. This is how a diagnosis is reached for a type of bipolar disorder.
Three episodes of bipolar are:
- Manic: This extreme level of the left column of symptoms may also go so far as to have hallucinations or psychotic breaks. Medical intervention may be needed, along with hospitalization. This can be short-lived or occur over two weeks.
- Hypomanic: This is a less extreme display of manic symptoms and typically would not require outside intervention. The behaviors may have side effects, such as large shopping bills, poor sexual decisions, or insomnia.
- Depressed: This is 14 days or longer where a person remains isolated, listless, experiencing crying jags, poor hygiene, and cannot cope with daily responsibilities. The symptoms displayed on the right of the table will show the state of mind more fully.