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Can You Diagnose Schizophrenia Under 18

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Developmental Issues In Diagnosis

In pre-adolescent children, diagnostic issues also relate to the difficulty of distinguishing between psychotic symptoms and normal developmental variation. For example, delusions can be confused with normal childhood fantasies, and formal thought disorder may be impossible to distinguish from illogical thinking and loose associations seen in children with immature language development. Children may also find it hard to describe accurately the location of hallucinations. Hence, the limitations of normal cognitive development make it very difficult to identify psychotic symptoms reliably in children below the age of seven.

In summary, efforts to describe age-specific variation in schizophrenic symptoms are constrained by the lack of biological markers providing external validation of the disorder. At present, schizophrenia is defined only at a symptomatic level. Hence, careful longitudinal and family genetic studies will be needed to clarify the nosological status of those psychotic presentations in childhood and adolescence that lie outside adult-based diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia.

Childhood Schizophrenia Is A Very Rare Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorder That Is Characterized By Hallucinations Disorganized Speech Delusions Catatonic Behavior And Negative Symptoms

Article by:Schizophrenia or Autism?Symptoms of Schizophrenia in ChildrenRisk FactorsCan Children Outgrow Schizophrenia?

Childhood schizophrenia is a schizophrenia spectrum disorder that is characterized by hallucinations, disorganized speech, delusions, catatonic behavior and “negative symptoms“, such as neglecting personal hygiene or appearing to lack emotion. Childhood schizophrenia is very rare, so when parents see what they believe are the signs of schizophrenia in their child and possibly ask their pediatrician about a child schizophrenia test, it’s likely that their fears are unfounded.

“Schizophrenia in children is quite uncommon, although it can be present,” says Victor Fornari, MD, director of child and adolescent psychiatry at Zucker Hillside Hospital in Glen Oaks, New York and Cohen Children’s Medical Center in New Hyde Park, New York.

In fact, childhood-onset schizophrenia is rare.1 With an estimated prevalence rate of around 1 in 10,000 children, it tends to be diagnosed more often in males than females. With schizophrenia, the prodrome phase, or early signs of concern, generally begin in adolescence, he says, and the age of full onset is late adolescence to early adulthood—basically from ages 18 to 25, Dr. Fornari says.

What Is The Role Of Long

Nonadherence to oral antipsychotic medications is one of the most significant clinical challenges in the treatment of schizophrenia. Nonadherence rates may be as high as 50% in the first year of treatment and 75% during the first 2 years of treatment. Despite evidence that continuous antipsychotic treatment is more effective than interrupted treatment, long-acting therapy use in the United States remains low. Barriers to increased long-acting therapy use include physicians’ reluctance to administer injectable medications, confusing reimbursement procedures, and the unfounded belief that patients would reject an offer of this treatment modality.

International Classification Of Diseases

In the International Classification of Diseases 8th revision there was a category “Other” in the schizophrenia section . “Other” includes: atypical forms of schizophrenia, infantile autism, schizophrenia, childhood type, NOS , schizophrenia of specified type not classifiable under 295.0–295.7, schizophreniform attack or psychosis.

Unspecified psychoses with origin specific to childhood in the International Classification of Diseases 9th revision includes “child psychosis NOS”, “schizophrenia, childhood type NOS” and “schizophrenic syndrome of childhood NOS”.

“Childhood type schizophrenia” available in the Soviet adopted version of the ICD-9 and the Russian adopted version of the 10th revision and the U.S. adopted the 10th revision ICD-10 classified “schizophrenia, unspecified”.

Who Is Likely To Have Childhood Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia symptoms causes and treatments

Any child can develop early schizophrenia. Some risk factors increase a child’s likelihood of developing this condition. These risks include:

  • Brain structure. Some people develop too few or too many connections between neurons .
  • Family history of schizophrenia or other personality disorders
  • Father older than 30 years old at the time of conception
  • Genetic risk factors. Some people have changes to their genes. These changes can be inherited or happen on their own.
  • Neurotransmitters that do not function correctly or do not function at all. Neurotransmitters are chemicals released by neurons that help control body systems and processes. With schizophrenia, the neurotransmitters dopamine or serotonin may not work as usual.

When Is Schizophrenia Diagnosed

It is unlikely for schizophrenia to be diagnosed in either early or late life. Most schizophrenia diagnoses come in early adulthood. Generally, the diagnosis for men comes a bit earlier, around age 18, than for women, who are often diagnosed in their mid-twenties. This can be problematic, as signs of schizophrenia often mimic signs of drug use. For this reason, doctors must rule out this cause of symptoms before diagnosing the disorder. Childhood schizophrenia can occur, although it is rare. Generally, children with schizophrenia begin to show symptoms between the ages of seven and their teenage years.

What Strategies Are Available For Early Intervention And Prevention Of Childhood

Outcome studies ranging from several years to up to 42 years after diagnosis of childhood-onset schizophrenia indicate that the long-term function of patients with childhood onset is poor compared to those with adolescent-onset or adult-onset schizophrenia. In general, the earlier that childhood-onset schizophrenia develops, the worse the prognosis. Higher premorbid intelligence, having more positive than negative symptoms, and having family members cooperate in treatment confer a better prognosis.

In a randomized trial involving 60 outpatients with prodromal symptoms randomized to olanzapine or placebo for 1 year and followed for 1 additional year, olanzapine was not associated with a reduction in the conversion to psychosis in patients with prodromal symptoms. The results of this study were complicated by a high dropout rate. Olanzapine was associated with a greater improved mean score for prodromal positive symptoms.

The notion of early intervention and perhaps even prevention of schizophrenia remains at the forefront of early-onset psychosis research. Further research in this area is ongoing. However, at present, the literature does not support clear treatment guidelines for these vulnerable patients.

Section 1: Diagnosis And Classification Of Schizophrenia

Classification is the process of organising symptoms into categories based on which symptoms cluster together in sufferers. Psychologists use the DSM and ICD to diagnose a patient with schizophrenia.

Diagnosis refers to the assigning of a label of a disorder to a patient. The ICD-10 is used worldwide and the DSM-5 is used in America.

In order to diagnose Schizophrenia the Mental Health Profession developed the DSM still used today as a method of classifying mental disorders .

It is also used as a basis for the ICD used by the World Health Organisation in classifying all disorders .

Note: you may come across the terms DSM-IV and ICD-10. These refer to the latest editions of the two classification systems.

Signs That A Teen Has Schizophrenia

Before teenagers show the classic signs of schizophrenia, they often go through what’s known as “the prodromal period.” During this time, teens may exhibit signs such as:

  • Steadily increasing the amount of unusual thoughts and actions
  • Hanging out with a new group of friends and leaving old friends behind
  • Withdrawing from normal social activities
  • Making lower grades than usual
  • Seeming depressed or irritable
  • Sleeping too much or too little

These symptoms are too general to base any diagnosis on. For example, low grades can indicate a number of different problems and irritability can be a normal part of teenage development. However, these symptoms can act as warning signs for parents and other caregivers, who should stay alert for the symptoms of full-blown schizophrenia, including:

  • A lack of personal hygiene
  • Disorganized communication
  • Social skills classes
  • Support groups

In some cases, teenagers with schizophrenia need temporary residential treatment. During this time, the teen lives in the treatment facility and professionals monitor them around the clock. They also receive medication management and daily therapy sessions.

You can help your teen by seeking professional help; you should not go it alone. First and foremost, you should seek immediate medical attention if your teen has suicidal thoughts or poses a risk to others.

Advice For Parents On Early Signs Of Schizophrenia

Dr. Dolores Malaspina applied to medical school with one aim–to understand the illness, , that afflicts her younger sister. Her research has found that about a quarter of all people living with schizophrenia may owe their symptoms to spontaneous mutations in paternal sperm–and the older the father, the more likely his sperm is to carry such mutations.

A practicing clinician with vast experience, Dr. Malaspina was part of the team that helped revise the 5th edition of the Diagnostic & Statistical Manual used for the diagnosis of psychiatric and behavioral disorders. She and colleagues are now testing the relationship of bacteria in the gut–the microbiome–to inflammation in the brain that may cause or contribute to psychiatric disorders.

Your sister, while she was a freshman in high school, experienced the symptoms of psychosis, the prelude to what was eventually diagnosed as schizophrenia. Can you share with us what this experience was like, as you and your family witnessed it?

What were some of the subtler signs in the period leading up to your sister’s fall into illness? It might help some parents to hear specifically what your family witnessed.

Perhaps, over a period of nine months, there were subtle signs–the withdrawing, the social anxiety, the decline in her grades, the reduced interest in her friends–these are indeed the kind of things that often occur during what we doctors call the “prodrome.”

If parents do notice these types of behaviors, what should they do?

Risk Factors For The Disease

A family history of schizophrenia does increase the chances of getting the disorder, and first-degree relatives are at an increased risk for being diagnosed, Dr. Fornari says. A lower IQ, delays in social development, and not reaching developmental milestones on time, such as language and motor skills, are risk factors as well, Dr. Houston says. While the disorder is present in only about 1 percent of the population, it occurs in up to 5 percent of first degree relatives of individuals who have schizophrenia.

What Are The Symptoms Of Childhood Schizophrenia

Childhood schizophrenia causes symptoms similar to in adults. In many cases, children who have schizophrenia first show social and developmental delays that occur with other conditions, including:

  • Disorganized behaviors, including inappropriate outbursts
  • Motor skill delays, including a delay in learning to walk
  • Poor attention span
  • Speech delays or other problems, such as echolalia

How Is Schizophrenia Diagnosed Dsm

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is a serious mental illness that deeply affects people. Because a correct schizophrenia diagnosis can improve someone’s quality of life, it’s important that it be made as soon as possible after the symptoms of schizophrenia appear.

Currently, no tests can provide a schizophrenia diagnosis. To determine whether someone has the disorder, doctors follow established criteria for a schizophrenia diagnosis.

Services In The Future

Although many child and adolescent mental health services provide excellent treatment for adolescents with psychosis, the national picture is of patchy provision, with a significant number of young patients denied the most effective treatments. One possible solution is the development of specialist regional early-psychosis centres, using a similar model to the specialist treatment of cancer or paediatric intensive care. These centres could provide a regional focus for research, education and tertiary clinical services.

Outside the UK, services such as the EPPIC Programme in Melbourne, Australia provide innovative models of intensive first-episode interventions for psychosis spanning adolescence and early adult life. In the UK, adolescent and adult services for psychosis are traditionally quite separate with little cross-fertilisation of ideas and skills. Both can learn from each other, and integrated models of service provision for early-onset psychosis that span traditional age boundaries deserve National Health Service investment and evaluation against more traditional models of service delivery.

What Are Positive Negative And Cognitive Symptoms Of Schizophrenia

During the acute phase of schizophrenia, children may show symptoms called positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms.

Positive symptoms are psychotic behaviors. During psychosis, a person is not connected with reality. Positive symptoms may include:

  • Delusions
  • Hallucinations
  • Movement disorders
  • Thought disorders

Negative symptoms of childhood schizophrenia disrupt normal behaviors or emotions. Negative symptoms may include:

  • Speaking infrequently or not at all
  • Limited or no display of emotions
  • Feeling no pleasure in everyday life
  • Problems with starting or finishing activities
  • Isolation

Cognitive symptoms of childhood schizophrenia reflect changes in thinking or memory. These symptoms may include:

  • Being unable to understand information and make decisions
  • Poor attention span
  • Trouble focusing on a task

Diagnostic And Statistical Manual Of Mental Disorders

American Psychiatric Association

Childhood schizophrenia was not directly added to the until 1968, when it was added to the , which set forth diagnostic criteria similar to that of adult schizophrenia. “Schizophrenia, childhood type” was a DSM-II diagnosis with diagnostic code 295.8, equivalent to “schizophrenic reaction, childhood type” in DSM-I . “Schizophrenia, childhood type” was successfully removed from the DSM-III , and in the Appendix C they wrote: “there is currently no way of predicting which children will develop Schizophrenia as adults”. Instead of childhood schizophrenia they proposed to use of “infantile autism” and “childhood onset pervasive developmental disorder” .

In the DSM-III-R , DSM-IV , DSM-IV-TR , DSM-5 there is no “childhood schizophrenia”. The rationale for this approach was that, since the clinical pictures of adult schizophrenia and childhood schizophrenia are identical, childhood schizophrenia should not be a separate disorder. However, the section in schizophrenia’s Development and Course in DSM-5, includes references to childhood-onset schizophrenia.

When To See A Doctor

It’s hard to identify schizophrenia in children. Young children have excellent imaginations so it’s common for them to have imaginary friends with whom they carry on conversations. That type of pretend play doesn’t mean your child is having hallucinations.

Kids also aren’t good at telling adults about their symptoms. When young children are asked questions about hallucinations or delusions, many of them say yes. But, that doesn’t mean they have psychosis.

Instead, in a paper published in 2013, researchers believe kids may report having those symptoms because they have overactive imaginations, cognitive limitations, or they simply misunderstand the question. So asking your child questions like, “Do you ever see things that no one else sees?” isn’t likely to give you much insight into whether your child should see a doctor.??

Symptoms also tend to begin gradually. Over time, however, a child may develop psychosis and the symptoms become much more obvious. If you notice developmental delays, strange eating rituals, bizarre behavior or ideas, change in academic performance, or social isolation, consult your child’s doctor.

Since schizophrenia in children is rare, there’s a good chance the symptoms may stem from something else. But it’s important to find out the reasons for the changes that you’re seeing.

How Does It Feel To A Child

In the video below, Prof. Rochelle Caplan, an expert on childhood schizophrenia, talks about how the symptoms appear and the effect that they can have. The Child Mind Institute, a nonprofit organization, produced the video.

Prof. Caplan describes how symptoms appear gradually in most cases. She explains how the experience can be “very scary” for the child at first. To parents or caregivers, this may present similarly to .

The child may feel afraid, for example, because the hallucinations or delusions can feel threatening.

The child might also have trouble paying attention, and they may become irritable or have difficulty sleeping. Prof. Caplan notes that some of these changes can resemble rebellious behavior.

Understanding what the child is experiencing can help parents and caregivers react in a constructive way that can help the child.

According to the authors of one case study, early onset schizophrenia is when a child aged 13–18 years experiences symptoms of schizophrenia.

Very early onset schizophrenia is when symptoms appear before the age of 13 years.

The researchers describe a child who experienced unusual perceptions from the age of 3 months.

There are no separate criteria to distinguish between childhood and adult schizophrenia.

First Step If You Feel Your Child Is At Risk: An Evaluation

The right treatment for prodromal symptoms depends entirely on how severe they are when they are diagnosed. The first step is a proper and complete diagnosis by a mental health professional with experience in assessing psychotic illness.

If you see marked changes in motivation, thinking, and/or behavior in your child, the first place to start is with her pediatrician to rule out a medical illness. Substance use also needs to be ruled out as the cause of any behavior changes in adolescents. After that, you’re going to want to have your child evaluated by a qualified psychiatrist or psychologist. This in itself might be a multi-step process.

“You can’t just look at the kid once and get a bit of a history and then know what’s going on, ” says Dr. Correll. “Kids develop; symptoms develop. And the trajectory—how things change, get better or worse, what other symptoms add on to it—will be highly informative in telling us something about the prognosis, what we expect to happen.”

One aid to predicting the evolution and severity of symptoms, notes Dr. Colibazzi, is the patient’s ability to doubt his symptoms. If your child retains the self-awareness to know that it’s his mind that is playing tricks on him, it’s an indication that symptoms are still in the very early stages. As symptoms become more severe, the patient’s beliefs become increasingly difficult to challenge.

Learn More About Schizophrenia:

Return to footnote 1 referrer

Footnote 2

Government of Canada. The human face of mental health and mental illness in Canada. 2006.

Return to footnote 2 referrer

Footnote 3

Canadian Chronic Disease Surveillance System , August 2019. Schizophrenia ; and use of health services for schizophrenia . CCDSS data are based on people with diagnosed schizophrenia who had contact with the health system during the data collection period, which may underestimate the total number of people diagnosed with schizophrenia during a lifetime. Saskatchewan data from year 2016-2017 were not available. Nunavut data were excluded before 2005–2006. Yukon data were excluded before 2010–2011. Crude rates were based on randomly rounded counts to an adjacent multiple of 10.

Return to footnote 3 referrer

Footnote 4

Declining of incidence rates of schizophrenia may be influenced by changes in population health status, clinical diagnostic and screening practices, or administrative practices within provinces, such as physician billing methods. For more information: Hamm, N.C., Pelletier, L., Ellison, J., Tennenhouse, L., Reimer, K., Paterson, J.M., Puchtinger, R., Bartholomew, S., Phillips, K.A.M., and Lix, L.M. 2019. Original quantitative research trends in chronic disease incidence rates from the Canadian Chronic Disease Surveillance System. Health promotion and chronic disease prevention in Canada: research, policy and practice, 39, 216.

Can Children Outgrow Schizophrenia

What is the difference between schizoaffective disorder ...

COS is not likely to go away without treatment and is generally a chronic condition. But the right combination of medication and mental health services, particularly early identification and intervention, can help, Dr. Klinger says. “The goal is to get the person diagnosed early and involved in an out-patient program that offers individual therapy, medical management, and group therapy with peers as well as with multiple families facing the challenges together,” he says.

How Can One Distinguish Primary Psychosis From Secondary Psychosis

A thorough medical workup is essential for distinguishing between primary and secondary psychotic disorders. lists medical disorders that have been associated with psychosis. Although there is no generally agreed-upon medical evaluation that every patient with psychosis should undergo,, screening tests should be ordered on the basis of a patient’s personal and family history, as well as on the basis of one’s clinical suspicion of conditions. Blanket testing for rare disorders may increase the risk of false-positive or false-negative results. On the other hand, the search for medical etiologies of psychosis may be expanded in the face of atypical presentations or when cases are refractory to standard treatments.

Does The Presence Of Psychotic Symptoms Necessarily Portend A Diagnosis Of Schizophrenia

However, rather than being a harbinger of schizophrenia, psychotic symptoms in childhood and adolescence more likely accompany other psychiatric conditions . lists psychiatric disorders that can be accompanied by psychosis. Differentiating early-onset schizophrenia or childhood-onset schizophrenia from other psychiatric disorders has important treatment implications. For example, a pediatric patient with bipolar disorder often experiences hallucinations and delusions but also has the clinical characteristics of mania, depression, or both. In children with psychological trauma-related hallucinations , psychotic symptoms may quickly abate with psychotherapeutic and/or social interventions. Compared to traumatized children, children with schizophrenia are more apt to display a formal thought disorder, negative symptomatology , and impulsive aggression. Like children and adolescents with schizophrenia, those with autism spectrum disorders may also have odd beliefs . Children with milder forms of autism may be misdiagnosed with psychosis due to their idiosyncratic beliefs, social awkwardness, and concrete thought process. Taking a comprehensive clinical history helps to disentangle diagnostic uncertainties.

Lifestyle And Mental Health Options

Psychotic symptoms and illnesses have been shown to vary quite a bit depending on the environment—the health of our bodies, our interpersonal relationships, our mindsets. As with any illness, but particularly important in at-risk youth, healthy living is key. Regardless of the severity of prodromal symptoms, Dr. Correll says that your child’s outcome can be improved by making sure your kid sticks to a routine that includes:

  • Eating well
  • Adhering to a regular sleep schedule
  • Reducing stress as much as possible
  • Staying away from drugs—particularly marijuana, which can interact with prodromal symptoms and increase the risk for psychosis significantly

Also, don’t forget to address depression and anxiety. According to Dr. Correll, “adults who eventually developed schizophrenia identified a three to five year period during which they experienced depression or anxiety before developing the prodromal symptoms of psychosis and then developed full-blown psychosis.”“So treating the depression early,” he says, “might actually interrupt the progression from depression to psychosis in some patients.”

Other Considerations In Diagnosing Schizophrenia

The DSM-5 includes other things that can help determine schizophrenia. They’re not necessary diagnostic criteria, but their presence points to this serious mental illness.

  • Inability to understand someone’s intentions
  • Thinking insignificant things are highly, personally meaningful
  • Manic behavior

In addition to these, people with schizophrenia often experience what is known as neurological soft sign, subtle abnormalities that aren’t severe enough to fit into any disorder but are problematic and indicative of a bigger problem, like schizophrenia. They can include:

  • Coordination problems
  • Left-right confusion
  • Difficulty with complex movement

To diagnose schizophrenia, professionals examine all of the symptoms and features that are present . They also must look at what is not present.

Which Neurodevelopmental And Neurobiological Abnormalities Are Associated With Youth Who Develop Schizophrenia

It is widely agreed that schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder; no single neurodevelopment model, however, explains the pathophysiology of the illness. Several studies have implicated complications during pregnancy and delivery as risk factors for the development of schizophrenia. The combination of genetic risk and evidence of acquired damage has suggested a neurodevelopmental theory with early central nervous system abnormalities that contribute to an increased vulnerability to schizophrenia later in life. Hypoxia-associated obstetrical complications also appear to increase the odds of developing earlier-onset schizophrenia.

Behaviors In Healthy Children

Some of the symptoms of childhood schizophrenia appear in healthy children. For example, having a vivid imagination and fantasies are typical parts of childhood.

However, they might be misunderstood to be hallucinations and taken as a symptom of schizophrenia. Similarly, children who have poor or underdeveloped language skills may be perceived as having the disorganized thought and speech patterns that are observed in schizophrenia.

What Parents Should Know About Schizophrenia And Teens

Schizophrenia is a serious mental disorder that people can develop at any age. Some studies show that not only can teenagers start showing signs of the disorder, but males who develop schizophrenia most often do so in the teen years and early 20s. Females tend to develop it in their 20s and 30s, but it’s possible for them to have signs earlier.

Despite the prevalence in teens, fewer than 20 percent of people who have psychosis say that their parents noticed the symptoms and did something to help. All parents can do their part to reverse this sad trend by learning about the disorder, the symptoms of schizophrenia in teens, and what to do if someone they know shows these signs.

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