Effects Of C Sativus And Its Constituents On Anxiety
Anxiety may be interpreted as an emotional anticipation of an aversive situation and is reflected by species-specific behavioural fear responses to stressful and threatening stimuli, characteristic for individual trait anxiety. Anxiety disorders including generalized anxiety disorder , specific and social phobias, post-traumatic stress disorder , obsessive-compulsive disorder and panic disorder are a major public health issue worldwide.
To date, anxiety disorders have been treated with medications that target -aminobutyric acid and serotonergic neurotransmission, like benzodiazepines, partial agonists of the serotonergic 5-HT1A receptor and selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors . Some forms of anxiety, however, are relatively resistant to treatment with these agents . In addition, either benzodiazepines or SSRIs can be associated with severe side effects, such as sedation, memory deficits, dependence and withdrawal, sexual dysfunction and weight gain. Further, the 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist buspirone has a somewhat limited use. Although it is generally well tolerated with few side effects, it has lower efficacy and its onset of action is slower than previous drugs such as the benzodiazepines . Thus, there is an urgent need to develop alternative treatment strategies .
Schizoaffective Disorder And Anxiety Make Me Walk On Eggshells
Theres a trap door in my head that I fall into and when Im there, everything seems dangerous. Anything from lighting candles to wiping up crumbs after Ive eaten a sandwich can send me falling through this trap door. I wonder if other people have trap doors like this in their heads, other people who dont have schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or generalized anxiety disorder.
Trap doors lead to cold, dank spaces with big, menacing shadows on the wall that look like real monsters. It is when I am in this space in my head that I need to walk on eggshells. I live with so much anxiety that I walk on eggshells around myself. Since anything from brushing my teeth to blowing my nose to picking my ear to even eating and going to the bathroom can send me into a tailspin of anxiety, I have to be very careful about what I do, touch, or say. That, alone, is very anxiety-provoking.
Chemistry Of C Sativus
Chemical analysis of C. sativus stigmas has shown the presence of about 150 volatile and non-volatile compounds. Fewer than 50 constituents, however, have been identified so far . The volatiles consist of more than 34 components that are terpenes, terpene alcohols and their esters among which safranal is the main component. Non-volatile compounds comprise crocins, crocetin, picrocrocin and flavonoids .
In particular, crocins, glucosyl esters of crocetin, are water-soluble carotenoids and are responsible for saffrons characteristic colour. Picrocrocin, glycoside of safranal, is responsible for the bitter taste of the spice and is the precursor of safranal. Safranal, the main component of the distilled essential oil, is a monoterpene aldehyde, responsible for its characteristic aroma . In the molecular structure of C. sativus components crocin and saffranal is illustrated.
Molecular structures of C. sativus components crocin and safranal.
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Anxiety Triggers Schizoaffective Disorder’s Symptoms
Ive written about hearing voices with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. My voices are triggered by anxiety. Yet, its puzzling because some days I can get really worked up and not hear voices, while other days the same dose of anxiety throws me into a tailspin and the voices invade. So theres really no way to gauge the amount of stress that will tip the balance. Theres no way of knowing when I should stop the stressful activity – and we all find ourselves having to do stressful things – or I will hear voices.
Is There A Comorbid Anxiety Disorder With Schizophrenia
A meta-analysis of 52 studies with a total of 4032 patients with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder found that 38.3 percent suffered from a comorbid anxiety disorder . Schizophrenia spectrum disorders include schizophrenia, schizoaffective, schizophreniform and delusional disorders, and psychosis not otherwise specified.
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Cbt: A Review Of The Literature
Treating people with schizophrenia using CBT is not an entirely new approach. Beck, in 1952, described successfully treating a delusional belief held by a patient with schizophrenia using CBT. Initial systematic efforts to use CBT for the treatment of schizophrenia focused on the treatment of acute symptoms experienced by inpatients.
Studies by Drury et al showed that cognitive therapy reduced positive symptoms at a faster rate during the initial 12-week period following hospital admission, and the overall amount of positive symptoms were reduced during this time compared to those patients that received an equal amount of activity therapy and support. There was no difference in the decrease in negative symptoms between the groups during the initial 12-week period. At nine-month follow up, the group that received cognitive therapy continued to have significantly fewer positive symptoms than the control group. At this follow up, there was no difference in negative symptoms. In addition, Drury et al found more rapid improvement in clinical recovery as measured by increased insight, less dysphoria and low level psychotic thinking, and less disinhibition.
Randomized controlled trials have shown moderate effect sizes for positive and negative symptoms at the end of therapy and with sustained effects.
CBT has been effective in clinical as well as research settings.
Hallucinations and delusions respond to CBT.
What Anxiety Feels Like Vs What Stress Feels Like
All of us experience some level of what we recognize as anxiety from time to time. At low levels, this feeling is generally referred to as stress and can be a healthy and motivating response to a particular life situation. For example, feeling stress before an exam is normal and helps to motivate focus, which is typically helpful in such situations. But, sometimes our inner response is disproportionately larger than the external situation it is linked to or we feel high levels of agitation for reasons that are unclear to us. So, how do we discern stress from anxiety if they are variations on the same general feeling?
In general, you can figure this out by looking at how well the external situation matches the inner response and how much the feelings you are having are impacting your sense of wellbeing and ability to get things done. When your inner agitation is interfering in your daily life or sense of wellbeing, especially when there is no obvious reason, then you may be experiencing levels of anxiety that might be worth checking out. Stress is a physical or mental tension in response to a trigger.
If you find yourself reacting like this to stressful situations, you can learn to manage your anxiety and separate a typical stress reaction from an outsized anxious reaction.
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What Cognitive Schizophrenia Symptoms Are Like
Someone with these symptoms may have trouble concentrating, focusing, taking in new information, and using that information. Their brain processes information more slowly, their memory declines, and they often have trouble reading and understanding social cues, Weinstein says. Though these symptoms can be made even worse by the brain âtrafficâ from positive symptoms, cognitive decline is a symptom all on its own, Margolis says.
âEven getting dressed was a very complicated process for me,â Collins says. âItâs like a traffic jam of information going in and out of your brain, so itâs like everything is always new, you donât remember the process.â
Dickson describes feeling like his brain was under constant assault. âMy analogy is if youâre playing a game of tackle football with some friends and the ball is coming to you, can you really do algebra in your head at that moment? I was a fairly smart guy, but when youâre sick with what I had, you really canât do a lot of deep intellectual thinking.â
How To Tell Anxiety And Schizophrenia Apart
First, those losing touch with reality because of schizophrenia often have no idea they’re losing touch with reality.
Second, changes tend to be gradual, and they never go away. Those with schizophrenia may occasionally have a rare moment of clarity, but without medication their minds struggle to regain control of themselves. So not only are they unaware that these changes are happening, they also do not get a break from the symptoms for long enough to wonder what’s happening to them.
Those with schizophrenia are often unable to notice and verbalize their condition and do not get any breaks in between symptoms. Those with anxiety do. This isn’t a complete list, of course. Only a trained mental healthcare professional can diagnose your mental health. If you have concerns about schizophrenia or another mental health disorder you should seek help from a professional.
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What Positive Schizophrenia Symptoms Are Like
These simply mean experiences that someone with schizophrenia has, such as hallucinations, delusions, unusual physical movements, and illogical thoughts. âThese are as real to the person with schizophrenia as it would be if someone came in the room and started talking to you,â Weinstein says.
Collins describes her hallucinations before she started treatment. âThe room would turn dark and people would distort and start looking demonic,â she recalls. âIf I looked in the mirror, my face would look demonic — I thought I was the ugliest person in the world.â Her vision and hearing started to change, making it extremely hard to make sense of the world. âIt was like an Alice in Wonderland,â Collins says. âEverything was getting bigger, smaller, louder, quieter my ability to process information coming in through my senses started breaking down.â
Dickson says he never saw any visions but he sensed so much âstaticâ in his brain that he couldnât focus or concentrate. âItâs like watching a movie where itâs a war zone, and bombs are going off, and itâs utter chaos.â
Both Collins and Dickson describe living with constant noise in their head. âI heard a lot of clicks and bangs. I took it for granted that this was the world was like, and everyone else knew how to function in it, but I couldnât,â Collins says. She also recalls seeing a âshadow man,â a common hallucination.
Recommendations For Future Studies
Although the current literature represents a first step to highlight the important co-occurrence of AD and SZSPD, this meta-analytic review allowed us to identify other issues requiring further investigations. First, systematic assessments of SZSPD populations are needed to provide more accurate estimates of the prevalence of the SZ/AD comorbidity because most previous studies used convenience sampling, which is not optimal to estimate comorbidity rates. Moreover, of the 5 systematic sampling studies that reported AD rates in SZSPD, three were general population prevalence studies, which have certain drawbacks related to the assessment of comorbidities: even large-scale studies such as the National Comorbidity Survey have yielded sample sizes that were too small and relied on diagnostic tools that were not optimal to provide accurate and valid estimates of AD prevalence in SZ subjects these studies could also be problematic when it comes to validly detecting all cases of psychosis in their sample , and the sample identified might, thus, not be fully representative of the population of people affected with a psychosis. Moreover, some populations at high risk for SZ are particularly unlikely to be sampled in such studies. Hence, the best and most feasible alternatives are probably to sample subjects from large and comprehensive population registries or to systematically sample FEP subjects within a given catchments area, which was attempted in a single study.,
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Differentiating Shyness With Anxiety
Sometimes, a persons discomfort with certain social situations is conflated with anxiety. There is a difference it lies in the ability of a person to go through with a social engagement anyways. You can a shy person and still meet others when you must, do public speaking and more without having a breakdown. You can be shy, but still capable of ordering a pizza over the phone without giving yourself a pep talk and preparing mentally for the arduous experience of conversing with a stranger over the telephone.
Where social anxiety is the feeling of fear or paranoia towards others and their intentions, perceptions and thoughts towards you and who you are in other words, the fear of being eternally and intently judged for every little thing you do, in a very negative sense shyness is characterized by a certain degree of discomfort in public or very social situations, but not necessarily an abject fear or feeling of anxiousness. Shyness can turn into anxiety, for any number of reasons. But its not a prerequisite you can develop an anxiety disorder as an extrovert and it is not anxiety, social or otherwise.
Neurosis Or Psychosis Some Further Thoughts
Several years ago, I was asked to write an article about the difference between neurosis and psychosis and to address the fears that patients with anxiety states have that they are going mad. Subsequently, an article entitled Neurosis or Psychosis? was published in a No Panic support email. In this article, I argue very strongly that it was impossible for anxiety states to develop into schizophrenia or for anxiety to develop into manic depression. In this, I simply wished to reassure readers who had fears of going mad that this would not happen. Subsequently, I have had a letter from a lady who suffers psychosis, which has caused me to think more about this topic and perhaps offer some further clarification.
In the article, I also drew attention to the difficulties produced by schizophrenia and manic depression and, in particular, described impaired motivation. In my original newsletter article, I was, of course, talking in generalities and I do, of course, appreciate that some people with schizophrenia do retain good motivation to lead a normal life and often make valiant efforts to continue functioning, despite suffering a very debilitating illness.
Professor Kevin Gournay is an Emeritus Professor at the Institute of Psychiatry. He has more than 35 years of experience and is the author of more than 130 articles and books. He is based in Cheshunt Hertfordshire.
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What Is Generalized Anxiety Disorder
With GAD, you may feel extreme and unrealistic worry and tension even if theres nothing to trigger these feelings. Most days, you may worry a lot about various topics, including health, work, school and relationships. You may feel that the worry continues from one thing to the next.
Physical symptoms of GAD can include restlessness, difficulty concentrating and sleeping problems.
Effects Of C Sativus And Its Constituents In Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia is a serious mental disorder that affects up to 1% of the population worldwide. It is a complex heterogeneous syndrome which impairs social, occupational and individual functioning and results in a remarkable decline in the quality of life of patients. Its aetiology and pathophysiology remain unknown. Schizophrenic patients suffer from enduring and persistent psychotic symptoms, which can be divided in three major types: positive symptoms , negative symptoms and cognitive disturbances .
Abnormalities in a number of neurotransmitter systems, most notably the dopamine, glutamate, cholinergic, the serotonergic and the GABAergic systems, are thought to be important for the appearance of this disease . In particular, positive symptoms of schizophrenia are associated with an excess of dopaminergic neurotransmission, in striatal brain regions, while negative symptoms and cognitive deficits are linked to dopaminergic hypofunction in prefrontal brain regions.
Although traditional antipsychotic drugs have demonstrated utility in treating the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, current treatments are limited in their ability to alleviate the negative and cognitive symptoms clusters and often are accompanied by significant side effects which themselves impact the quality of life . Finally, one third of patients are resistant to currently available medication. Therefore, there is an urgent requirement to develop new molecules for the treatment of schizophrenia.
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Psychotherapy And Social Support
While these may help, they cannot replace traditional treatment.
Some have suggested that cannabidiol , an ingredient in cannabis, could play a role in treating schizophrenia. However, confirming this will require more research. It is important that people with schizophrenia discuss any complementary treatments with their doctors.
Is CBD legal?Hemp-derived CBD products with less than 0.3% THC are legal federally but still illegal under some state laws. Cannabis-derived CBD products, on the other hand, are illegal federally but legal under some state laws. Check local legislation, especially when traveling. Also, keep in mind that the Food and Drug Administration has not approved nonprescription CBD products, which may be inaccurately labeled.
Without treatment, schizophrenia can significantly disrupt a persons life, including their ability to work, study, and care for themselves.
Some helpful strategies include:
- following the treatment plan carefully, including taking medications as prescribed
- bringing up any concerns about treatment with a healthcare provider
- making use of available support, which may involve friends, crisis services, and specialized healthcare facilities
- making healthful choices regarding the diet, exercise, and the use of drugs, alcohol, and tobacco
- talking about the experience of schizophrenia with friends, family members, healthcare providers, and supportive peers
Loved ones can help by:
- listening to the person
Signs Your Anxiety Has Become A Disorder
Anxiety is a normal part of the human experience, and it plays an important role in keeping us healthy and safe. Like most emotions, however, anxiety can grow to the point that it does more harm than good, and this is the point at which it becomes a disorder.
As modern humans, many of the challenges we face are the same as those faced at the dawn of our species 200,000 years ago. Each of us must still secure food, clothing, shelter, companionship and assure our physical safety. However, there are new challenges unique to modern life for which our drives and emotions may not be optimally calibrated.
The anonymity of life in modern cities, the financial uncertainty most of us face, the lack of a common code of ethics, the availability of drugs and alcohol and even commuting in traffic can all engage our thoughts and emotions in a way that may cause a type of chronic, baseline anxiety that wasnt present for our ancestors.
What is often surprising to people is that we are essentially the same animals we were 200,000 years ago, with the same bodies, brains, drives and intelligence that evolution crafted for survival on the plains of Africa. As humans now living in the modern world, we are like cars that were built and tuned for off-road use that are now driving on a congested, urban highway.
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