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What Are Examples Of Eating Disorders

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Bulimia Example, DSM 5 Eating Disorder Symptoms Case, Psychology Film

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Although, over time those appearances and standards have changed they have always been there. For a very long time now what the culture says is a beautiful woman is a: tall, thin, light skin, light hair, light eyes. Most of what was listed has to do with genetics, so theres not much that can be done to fit the image if one does not already possess it. However, there is one that a woman does have control over, and that is weight. Although, it has to do little with genetics as well, it can be changed to however thin or thick a woman wants to be. The scholar would like to point out that it is a lot easier to gain weight than to lose weight.

Continuing on that note, exercising and dieting are more often than not a very slow process and it takes a lot of commitment. Dieting is often confused with eating less and consequently starving, and then leads to has been come to be known anorexia nervosa. Nonetheless, anorexia has grown and become a bigger problem because a culture was made, in which to be pretty one must be skinny. It has grown because in the modern age that the world has come to information is more easily accessible and technology is everywhere. Day and night, all over the world everyone is surrounded by technology and billboards, commercials, magazines etc and all those areas everyday images of what a beautiful woman is are shown, and every single time they are thin.

How Are Eating Disorders Managed Or Treated

Treatments for eating disorders vary depending on the type and your specific needs. Even if you dont have a diagnosed eating disorder, an expert can help you address and manage food-related issues. Treatments include:

  • Psychotherapy: A mental health professional can determine the best psychotherapy for your situation. Many people with eating disorders improve with cognitive behavioral therapy . This form of therapy helps you understand and change distorted thinking patterns that drive behaviors and emotions.
  • Maudsley approach: This form of family therapy helps parents of teenagers with anorexia. Parents actively guide a childs eating while they learn healthier habits.
  • Medications: Some people with eating disorders have other conditions, like anxiety or depression. Taking antidepressants or other medications can improve these conditions. As a result, your thoughts about yourself and food improve.
  • Nutrition counseling: A registered dietitian with training in eating disorders can help improve eating habits and develop nutritious meal plans. This specialist can also offer tips for grocery shopping, meal planning and preparation.

The best treatment approach is often a combination of all of these professionals working together to obtain a comprehensive treatment to address the physical, mental and behavioral aspects.

The Different Causes Of Eating Disorders

Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital.

When a person gets sick, it’s natural to want to understand why. With eating disorders, which are associated with many myths and negative stereotypes, the question of causation can be especially confusing.

The culture at large commonly blames eating disorders on oversimplified explanations, such as the medias promotion of unrealistically slender models or on bad parenting. Even some health professionals buy into these explanations.

But research shows that familieslongtime scapegoatsdo not cause eating disorders, at least not in any simple, straightforward manner.

While growing up in a dysfunctional home could increase the risk for a number of psychological problems, including eating disorders, it does not condemn a child to an eating disorder or any other psychological disorder.

Scientists cant say for sure what exactly causes an eating disorder or predict who will develop an eating disorder. In general, most experts agree that eating disorders are complicated illnesses that stem not from a single cause but from a complex interaction of biological, psychological, and environmental factors. There are many different pathways to the development of an eating disorder from binge eating disorder to anorexia nervosa to bulimia nervosa.

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What Is Anorexia Nervosa

Individuals with anorexia nervosa are unable or unwilling to maintain a body weight that is normal or expected for their age and height. Typically, this means that a person is less than 85% of their expected weight. Even when underweight, individuals with anorexia continue to be fearful of weight gain. Their thoughts and feelings about their size and shape have profound impact on their sense of self and their self-esteem. They often do not recognize or admit the seriousness of their weight loss and deny that it may have permanent adverse health consequences. Women with anorexia nervosa often stop having their periods.

There are two subtypes of anorexia nervosa. In the restricting subtype, people maintain their low body weight purely by restricting food intake and, possibly, by exercise. Individuals with the binge-eating/purging type also restrict their food intake, but also regularly engage in binge eating and/or purging behaviors such as self-induced vomiting or the misuse of laxatives, diuretics or enemas. Many people move back and forth between subtypes during the course of their illness.

Gene And Environment Interplay

Eating disorders

Neither genes nor environment cause eating disorders on their own. Eating disorders are likely the result of a complicated interplay of these factors. Even when a precipitating factor can be identified, there is almost always a combination of other contributing factors. The precipitating factor is most likely the trigger that tripped a cascade of events.

Genetic susceptibility may influence their response to certain stressors. For example:

  • A person who is genetically susceptible to an eating disorder may be more sensitive to weight-related teasing and have a heightened reaction to it .
  • A person who is genetically vulnerable may continue dieting much longer than peers who diet and then stop.
  • A person who has the temperament that commonly underlies anorexia nervosa may seek out the types of social environments that contribute to the onset of dieting.

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Nos Diagnoses In Dsm And Eating Disorder Nos

Eating disorder NOS is an example of the Not OtherwiseSpecified category in DSM-IV . Since the publication of DSM-III , the AmericanPsychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders hasincluded either atypical or not otherwise specified categories and DSM-IV), respectively in each broad diagnostic class in view ofthe difficulty covering every presentation encountered in clinical practice. Thesediagnoses are intended to indicate a category within a class of disorders that isresidual to the specific categories in that class .

Eating disorder NOS is the category in DSM-IV reservedfor eating disorders of clinical severity that do not meet diagnostic criteria for eitherone of the two eating disorders recognised in DSM-IV, anorexia nervosa and bulimianervosa. In common with other NOS diagnoses, it is a residual category. Thus, there aretwo steps in making a diagnosis of eating disorder NOS: first, it must be determined thatthere is an eating disorder of clinical severity and then, it must be established thatthe diagnostic criteria of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are not met. This secondstep therefore involves diagnosis by exclusion: no positive diagnostic criteria for eatingdisorder NOS need to be fulfilled.

Signs Of Bulimia Nervosa

People with bulimia nervosa have episodes of eating large amounts of food followed by purging , fasting, or exercising excessively to compensate for the overeating.

Unlike anorexia, people with bulimia are often a normal weight. But they have the same intense fear of gaining weight and distorted body image. They see themselves as âfatâ and desperately want to lose weight. Because they often feel ashamed and disgusted with themselves, people with bulimia become very good at hiding the bulimic behaviors.

The following are common signs of bulimia:

  • Evidence of binge eating, including disappearance of large amounts of food in a short time, or finding lots of empty food wrappers or containers
  • Evidence of purging, including trips to the bathroom after meals, sounds or smells of vomiting, or packages of laxatives or diuretics
  • Skipping meals or avoiding eating in front of others, or eating very small portions
  • Exercising excessively
  • Wearing baggy clothes to hide the body
  • Complaining about being âfatâ
  • Using gum, mouthwash, or mints excessively
  • Constantly dieting
  • Scarred knuckles from repeatedly inducing vomiting

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I Overview Of Eating Disorder Terms

The word nervosa indicates that each of these conditions is a nervous disorder. Psychological difficulties are likely to be involved in the development of these disorders, and also are likely to be exacerbated by the eating-disordered behavior. Anorexia means lack of appetite. The hallmark feature of anorexia nervosa is failure to maintain a minimally normal body weight. The meaning of the term bulimia is ox hunger, or hungry as an ox. Bulimia nervosa is characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating and compensatory behaviors . Overlap between the symptoms of these disorders occurs in some individuals. Furthermore, individuals may engage in disturbed eating behaviors and/or indicate intense body image disparagement, but not meet full criteria for anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa. Detailed information about diagnostic criteria are provided later in this research paper. It is important to note that eating-related behaviors may be best conceptualized as existing along a continuum ranging from healthy to unhealthy eating-related behaviors and body image.

What Are The Causes Of Eating Disorders

Bulimia Example, Eating Disorder Case Study, DSM 5 Symptoms Video

There is no single cause of an eating disorder. Most health professionals think there are several factors that contribute to eating disorders. This includes:

Characteristics of people

Research has shown there are particular character traits that can increase the risk of having an eating disorder. These include:

  • Obsessive or compulsive behaviours.
  • Leaving home or moving to a new place.

Physical and Mental Health problems

Having issues that are either mental or physical can cause an individual to spiral towards developing a disorder related to the consumption of food, as a way to feel more in control.

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Ii Continuum Of Health Related To Eating Disorders

The pursuit of and preoccupation with beauty represent a central feature of the female sex-role stereotype. Therefore, it is possible that attractiveness, and specifically body image, have a greater influence on self-concept for women than for men. Although standards of beauty have varied widely across time and cultures, the mass media have contributed to the development of a more uniform standard of beauty.

Unfortunately, the current images of women that are portrayed in the media often represent unrealistic weights and shapes for most women. In a classic study, Garner and colleagues demonstrated a consistent decrease in body weights and measurements of two standards of beauty over two decades . Fashion models are now 23 % thinner than average women, compared to 8% thinner than average woman three decades ago. Indeed, models who depict the in-vogue waif look are likely to have a body weight consistent with criteria for anorexia nervosa.

What Causes Eating Disorders

A mix of genetics, environment and social factors play a role in the development of eating disorders. Some people with eating disorders may use extreme measures to control food when they feel like other aspects of their lives are out of control. An obsession with food becomes an unhealthy way of coping with painful emotions or feelings. Thus, eating disorders are more about finding healthy way to manage your emotions than about food.

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Types Of Eating Disorders: Anorexia Nervosa

First on the eating disorders list is Anorexia Nervosa. Anorexia is characterized by self-starvation and excessive weight loss.

The following are common anorexia symptoms:

  • Refusal to maintain body weight at or above a minimally normal weight for height, body type, age, and activity level
  • Intense fear of weight gain or being “fat”
  • Feeling “fat” or overweight despite dramatic weight loss
  • Loss of menstrual periods

Information on the treatment of anorexia.

How To Get Help For Yourself Or A Loved One

Eating Disorders: Shattering Pervasive Myths [Infographic]

The good news is, if you are considering getting help for yourself or a loved one that you believe is suffering from an eating disorder, you have already taken the first step! Learning the fundamental information regarding eating disorders is the most important action needed to begin the process towards change.

A common initial step is to meet with your primary care doctor and express your concerns. Being open and honest with your primary care doctor is vital to assessing your needs and finding the appropriate treatment option for you. If you are seeking help for your child or adolescent, your family pediatrician will be able to provide useful information to your treatment team by sharing your childs growth charts that are generally maintained since birth.

You may also find it useful to simultaneously seek an evaluation from an outpatient psychotherapist who specializes in eating disorders. Online directories are available to search for an appropriate therapist and insurance companies typically have listings as well. Having an assessment completed by a knowledgeable psychotherapist is a fundamental step to beginning the treatment process.

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Eating Disorders Case Study:

Eating disorders are the psychologically based behavioral syndromes, which are connected with the problematic consumption of food. Among the great number of the eating disorders there are anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. Eating disorders are closely connected with psychological disorders and depend on the condition of the human psychics.Generally, all types of eating disorders are the results of stress or depression.

For example, speaking about anorexia nervosa , the disorder is widespread among the young women who try to look slim and nice and have the image of an extremely thin girl in their heads as an idol. They try to reach the image of this model and stop eating regularly or reduce the quantity and quality of food products considerably. As a result, the body weight is lost and very seldom the process of further loss of weight can be stopped. Naturally, such a person dies very soon. Bulimia nervosa is also connected with the constant care about the body weight, but the result is opposite to anorexia nervosa because the patient eats heavily trying to make the body weight regular.

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What Questions Should I Ask My Doctor

If you have an eating disorder, you may want to ask your healthcare provider:

  • What type of eating disorder do I have?
  • What is the best treatment for the eating disorder I have?
  • What are the treatment risks and side effects?
  • What type of follow-up care do I need after treatment?
  • Should I look out for signs of complications?

A note from Cleveland Clinic

Eating disorders are a serious problem that can affect your mental and physical health. If you think you have an eating disorder, dont be embarrassed about seeking help. Millions of Americans struggle every day with an eating disorder. With proper medical care and mental health counseling, you can get better. Years of living with an untreated eating disorder can harm your physical health and may lead to life-threatening problems. Take the first step to protecting your well-being by talking to your healthcare provider.

Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 10/07/2020.

References

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Avoidant/restrictive Food Intake Disorder

A serious eating disorder characterized by eating and feeding disturbances resulting in significant weight loss and other medical complications.

Symptoms

  • Eating or feeding disturbance, such as an apparent lack of interest in eating or food, avoiding food based on its sensory characteristics, or concern about aversive consequences of eating, not better explained by lack of available food or an associated culturally sanctioned practice

  • Persistent failure to meet appropriate nutritional and energy needs

  • Significant weight loss, significant nutritional deficiency, dependence on enteral feeding or oral supplements, and/or marked interference with psychosocial functioning

  • Lack of disturbed perception and experience of ones own body weight or shape

  • Behavior described as restrictive, selective, choosy, or perseverant eating

  • Presence of a conditioned negative response associated with food intake such as choking or repeated vomiting

Medical Complications and Associated Features

  • Weight loss or faltering growth

  • Generalized emotional difficulties, sometimes referred to as food avoidance emotional disorder

  • Mirroring of medical complications and associated features of anorexia nervosa

Common Types Of Eating Disorders

What Causes Eating Disorders? Part 3: Sociological Causes

Although the term eating is in the name, eating disorders are about more than food. Theyre complex mental health conditions that often require the intervention of medical and psychological experts to alter their course.

These disorders are described in the American Psychiatric Associations Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition .

In the United States alone, an estimated 20 million women and 10 million men have or have had an eating disorder at some point in their life .

This article describes 6 of the most common types of eating disorders and their symptoms.

Eating disorders are a range of psychological conditions that cause unhealthy eating habits to develop. They might start with an obsession with food, body weight, or body shape.

In severe cases, eating disorders can cause serious health consequences and may even result in death if left untreated.

Those with eating disorders can have a variety of symptoms. However, most include the severe restriction of food, food binges, or purging behaviors like vomiting or over-exercising.

Although eating disorders can affect people of any gender at any life stage, theyre most often reported in adolescents and young women. In fact, up to 13% of youth may experience at least one eating disorder by the age of 20 .

Summary Eating disorders are mental health conditions marked by an obsession with food or body shape. They can affect anyone but are most prevalent among young women.

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What Is Bulimia Nervosa

Individuals with bulimia nervosa experience binge-eating episodes which are marked by eating an unusually large amount of food, usually in a discrete period of time, and feeling out of control while doing so. The sense of being out of control is what distinguished binge-eating from regular overeating. Binge eating is followed by attempts to undo the consequences of the binge by using unhealthy compensatory behaviors such as self-induced vomiting, misuse of laxatives, enemas, diuretics, severe caloric restriction, or excessive exercising.

Individuals with bulimia nervosa are also deeply preoccupied with their shape and weight and often feel as if their self-worth is dependent on their weight or shape.

Formal diagnostic criteria for bulimia nervosa describe binge eat and engage in inappropriate compensatory behavior at least twice weekly for at least three months. However, regardless of frequency, these behaviors are concerning and can have adverse physical and psychological consequences.

There are also two subtypes of bulimia nervosa. The purging type includes those individuals who self-induce vomiting or use of laxatives, diuretics, or enemas. The non-purging type refers to those who compensate through excessive exercising or dietary fasting.

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