What Are The Signs Of Depression
With both bipolar I and bipolar II, the depression is the same. Symptoms may include:
Feeling sad. Often, you dont want to do anythingincluding activities you once loved. You can feel hopeless, empty, and unworthy.
Endless exhaustion. People who are depressed feel so lethargic they dont even get out of bed, even after a full eight hours of shuteye.
Sleep issues. If you’re depressed, you may have difficulty falling asleep or may wake up before morning, unable to fall back to sleep. Or you might snooze too much, because a full nights rest doesnt feel like enough.
Difficulty concentrating. Simple questions seem too much to think about.
Appetite changes. People in a depressed state can eat either too much or too little.
Suicidal thoughts. The depression can get so bad, people with depression may even contemplate suicide. The International Journal of Bipolar Disorders reports that suicide risk in people with bipolar is 20 times that of the general population and is strongly associated with depressive phases, especially with mixed or psychotic features. If this is you, contact a professional immediately, or call the National Suicide Prevention Hotline at 1-800-273-8255.
To read more about the symptoms of depression , .
Ruling Out Other Conditions
There are no specific blood tests or brain scans to diagnose bipolar disorder. Even so, a doctor may perform a physical exam and order lab tests, including a thyroid function test and urine analyses. These tests can help determine if other conditions or factors could be causing your symptoms.
A thyroid function test is a blood test that measures how well your thyroid gland functions. The thyroid produces and secretes hormones that help regulate many bodily functions.
If your body does not receive enough of the thyroid hormone, which is known as hypothyroidism, your brain may not function as expected. As a result, you may have problems with depressive symptoms or develop a mood disorder.
Sometimes, certain thyroid issues cause symptoms that are similar to those of bipolar disorder. Symptoms may also be a side effect of medications. After other possible causes are ruled out, your doctor will likely refer you to a mental health specialist.
Comprehensive Treatment For Bipolar 1 And Bipolar 2
The complex nature of bipolar disorder makes it challenging to receive an accurate diagnosis. Many people spend years undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. Bipolar is most commonly misdiagnosed as depression because individuals do not tend to seek help during manic episodes.
With an accurate diagnosis, effective treatment typically involves a combination of psychotherapy and medication. In bipolar disorder treatment at Harmony Hills, clients can expect:
- Daily group therapy sessions
- Education about bipolar disorder and its impacts
- Access to health nutrition and physical fitness
- Co-occurring disorders treatment
Our bipolar disorder treatment program is residential to allow clients to become fully immersed in treatment without the distractions of everyday life. The structure of our program helps clients build and learn to maintain healthy daily routines that impact overall well-being.
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Demographic Characteristics Baseline Illness Severity And Clinical History
Demographic characteristics in the pooled ITT population were broadly similar between bipolar I and II patients . More than half the patients in both bipolar I and II subgroups were female and the mean age was approximately 39 years in both populations. Mean body weight was lower in the bipolar II than bipolar I population , but there was large interpatient variation. Patients with bipolar I and II disorders had similar clinical histories for the number of recent and lifetime mood episodes .
Coping With Bipolar Disorder
Typically, individuals with bipolar disorder will experience one to two episodes per year, but those who experience rapid cycling will have four or more episodes in a twelve-month period.
Being in tune with your feelings and recognizing if symptoms are increasing is an important part of living with bipolar disorder. Noticing that an episode might be coming, managing stress levels, and identifying and avoiding things that trigger episodes can help manage symptoms and maintain stability.
Having a treatment team made up of professionals that you trust is important for managing symptoms. Open, honest communication about your symptoms and stressors is an essential part of treatment.
There are many stigmas that people with bipolar I and bipolar II disorder face. But stigmas are often the result of a lack of knowledge on a particular subject. Both bipolar I and bipolar II are highly treatable. Individuals with these disorders can receive effective treatment, stabilize, and lead fulfilling lives.
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Understanding The Difference Between Bipolar Disorder 1 And Bipolar Disorder 2
While there are different types of bipolar disorder, they are all characterized by episodes of extreme shifts in mood that cause significant distress and difficulty managing daily life. The main difference between these disorders is the severity of manic episodes. In bipolar 1, individuals experience a full manic episode, whereas in bipolar 2, they experience a hypomanic episode, which is less severe and doesnt last as long.
This distinction can cause some to think of bipolar 2 as a milder form of bipolar 1, but that is not the case. These are two distinct disorders that have different diagnostic criteria. The severity of depressive episodes in bipolar 2 can rival the severity of manic episodes in bipolar 1. Each can have devastating impacts on functioning.
What Is The Outlook
Bipolar disorder isnt curable. But with proper treatment and support from family and friends, you can manage your symptoms and maintain your quality of life.
Its important that you follow your doctors instructions regarding medications and other lifestyle choices. This includes:
Including your friends and family members in your care can be especially helpful.
Its also helpful to learn as much as you can about bipolar disorder. The more you know about the condition, the more in control you may feel as you adjust to life after diagnosis.
You may be able to repair strained relationships. Educating others about bipolar disorder may make them more understanding of hurtful events from the past.
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What Are The Symptoms Of Bipolar Disorder
As with PTSD, CPTSD, and so many other mental health conditions, the symptoms of bipolar disorder arent uniform for all people and may vary in severity from person to person.
While each type of bipolar diagnosis gives rise to different patterns and symptoms, the defining symptoms of bipolar disorder generally include:
What Is The Difference Between Bipolar 1 And 2
For many years, bipolar disorders were called manic depression. However, now we know that there are three main types, which include type one bipolar, type two bipolar, and rapid cycling bipolar . Previously, we considered any kind of mood disorders with mania and depression to be manic depression. But now we know that there are significant differences between the three types of bipolar.
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Manic Or Hypomanic Episode
Manic or hypomanic episodes are marked as elevated mood or high-energy feelings. Although both are different but show similar symptoms. Therefore, it becomes difficult to differentiate both manic episodes and hypomanic episodes from each other.
A manic episode is considered to be more severe than a hypomanic episode. The less severe form of mania is called hypomania, in which a person may not identify mood or activity changes. While in the case of mania, the changes in a persons mood are easily identifiable.
Mania and Hypomania are mostly associated with bipolar disorder, but they are also associated with other mood disorders.
Symptoms observed in mania or hypomania are such as
These symptoms are signs of developing bipolar disorder. There are mainly four types of bipolar disorder, the two are very common and more frequent. They are bipolar I and bipolar II disorder. Hence, it is very important to know about what is the difference between bipolar 1 and bipolar 2 for a clear understanding.
Diagnosis Of Bipolar Ii
Bipolar II Disorder is marked by hypomanic episodes that are of shorter duration and sometimes less intensity than manic episodes. Thats why its known as hypomania, meaning literally under mania. The same manic symptoms as in Bipolar I might exist, but the hypomanic episode tends to last at least four days instead of the minimum seven days in Bipolar I. Thus, it can do somewhat less damage to the individuals life, at least in the shorter term. Depressive episodes, however, can be just as severeor even worsethan what occurs in Bipolar I Disorder.
Moreover, those with hypomanic episodes may be harder to diagnose. They may be viewed as symptomatic of active people who are simply stressed out by life, or people who have another kind of mental health problem such as anxiety or a personality disorder. However, because Bipolar II patients tend to be highly productive individuals, and generally more functional than Bipolar I patients, they may not consider mood regulation to their benefit.
People around the Bipolar II person may tend to disagree, however. Thats because the very definition of a hypomanic episode indicates a clear change in the persons behavior that is uncharacteristic to that individual when not hypomanic. And, importantly, that change in behavior is easily noticed by others in that persons daily life.
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When To See A Doctor
There are two ways to know if you need to see a doctor regarding your symptoms, Miklowitz says. The first is if you answer yes to any of the following questions:
- Am I unable to do my work?
- Is it difficult to get through the day?
- Am I feeling anxious or depressed?
- Am I flying high and making reckless choices?
The second way is when other people express being disturbed or worried about changes in your behavior, whether you agree with them or not. Miklowitz says the following questions from friends indicate your symptoms are starting to affect your interactions with others:
- Is something going on with you?
- You seem to be acting recklessly, are you okay?
- You seem to be having a tough time at work, is there something going on?
Treatment for all bipolar disorders typically involves medication and regular psychotherapy.
Symptoms Specific To Bipolar I
Where bipolar I and II differ is the length and intensity of the high and the presence of major depression. Bipolar I requires one experience of mania, but does not require an episode of major depression .
The American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders classifies mania to be a period of abnormality, featuring an elevated, persistent or irritable mood, severe enough to impair functioning, with three or more symptoms of:
- Inflated self-esteem or grandiosity
- Increased goal-directed activity
- Excessive involvement in activities that have high potential for painful consequences.
For an episode to be defined as manic it must last at least one week. Someone experiencing mania may not know they are ill or in need of treatment, and occasionally an episode will include an experience of psychosis or delusional thoughts.
Many people who experience mania describe their actions as euphoric, a feeling of invincibility, where no idea is too big or too optimistic.
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Both Types Should Be Properly Treated
Since hypomania that occurs in bipolar II is less severe than the mania that occurs in bipolar I disorder, bipolar II is often described as “milder” than bipolar Ibut this is not completely accurate. Certainly, people with bipolar I can have more serious symptoms during mania, but hypomania is still a serious condition that can have life-changing consequences and therefore, should be properly addressed.
In addition, research suggests that bipolar II disorder is dominated by longer and more severe episodes of depression. In fact, over time, people with bipolar II become less likely to return to full functioning between episodes.
Proper treatment should be pursued for all types of bipolar disorders, and you should work closely with your healthcare team to figure out the best treatment for you.
What Are The Causes Of Bipolar Disorder
There is no one known cause of bipolar disorder. However, there are several factors that experts believe could contribute to the development of the condition, including:
- Genetics: There is evidence to suggest that bipolar disorder runs in families. According to the American Psychiatric Association, 8090% of people with bipolar disorder have a relative with bipolar disorder or depression.
- Stress: High stress events such as an illness, a divorce, financial difficulties, or a death in the family could trigger a manic or depressive episode. Not processing stress effectively could also lead to the development of bipolar disorder.
- Brain structure and function: When examining people with bipolar disorder, some researchers have detected differences in brain structure compared with people without bipolar disorder. Additional research is needed to see how these differences can play a role in understanding bipolar disorder and developing effective treatments.
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Treatment For Bipolar I And Bipolar Ii
Treatment for bipolar I disorder and bipolar II disorder typically consists of medications, psychotherapy, and lifestyle changes.
As bipolar disorder is a long-term condition, treatment will be long lasting. Some people may have a treatment team that includes a psychologist, psychiatrist, therapist, and psychiatric nurse practitioner.
How Is Cyclothymia Diagnosed
Researchers are not sure what causes or triggers symptoms of cyclothymia. The condition is, however, known to run in families.
A person does not have cyclothymia if they feel symptom-free for more than two months. To distinguish cyclothymia from regular moodiness, your doctor will compare your symptoms to the following clinical criteria:
- many periods of elevated mood and depression for at least two years occurring at least half of the time
- periods of stable moods lasting less than two months
- symptoms that socially impact your daily life at school, work, etc.
- symptoms that dont meet the criteria for bipolar disorder, major depression or another mental disorder
- symptoms not caused by substance abuse or another medical condition
Your doctor will discuss your symptoms and medical history with you. He/she may also ask you questions about your use of drugs or alcohol.
Lab tests may also be performed to rule out other medical conditions that may be causing the symptoms.
Symptoms Of Bipolar 2 Disorder
For the diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder Type 2, a person must have had at least one hypomanic episode and one major depressive episode.
Symptoms Of Hypomania
During a period of hypomania, an individual will experience increased activity levels both physically as well as mentally. People who are experiencing mania might talk more than usual or be easily irritated by small things. Mood swings are when someone feels different. They feel happy and then they may feel sad with no warning at all. This can make it hard for people to predict how they will react.
People with bipolar type II disorder will have both hypomania and depressive episodes. People with bipolar type I only experience manic and mixed states .
Heredity And Bipolar Disorder
While researchers dont fully understand the causes of bipolar disorder, they have identified some risk factors. One of the strongest risk factors is a family history of the disorder. This connection may be due to certain genes.
Adults who have relatives with the disorder have an average tenfold increase in risk of developing the disorder, according to a 2009 review. Your risk further increases if the family member with the condition is a close relative. That means if your parent has bipolar disorder, you have a greater chance of developing it than someone whose great aunt has the condition.
Genetic factors account for about 60 to 80 percent of the cause of bipolar disorder. That means that heredity isnt the only cause of bipolar disorder. It also means that if you have a family history of the disorder, you wont definitely develop it. Most family members of someone with bipolar disorder wont develop the condition.
In addition to heredity, researchers believe there are other risk factors for bipolar disorder.
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An Updated Look At Bipolar Ii Disorder
Bipolar II Disorder has traditionally been thought of as a lesser form of the condition compared to Bipolar I. The reason for this difference is how a manic episode, which defines Bipolar I, can be longer in duration and have more severe consequences within a particular episode. A hypomanic episode, which is a characteristic of Bipolar II, tends to be shorter in duration and generally less consequential in its effects. But the impression that Bipolar II is a lesser form of the overall condition of bipolar disorder is often misleading.
First of all, simply looking at a typical manic episode and a typical hypomanic episode in a side-by-side comparison does not tell the full story of how devastating an overall Bipolar II Disorder can be. To clarify, Bipolar I is diagnosed if at least one manic episode is in that persons history, and the assessing clinician needs only a subjective report from that individual for the diagnosis to be appropriate. There does not need to be any history of depression.
In Bipolar II, the diagnosis fits if there is a history of one hypomanic episode and one episode of major depression, and the effects of the condition should essentially change how that person is perceived by others around him or her. In other words, at least one person close to that individual would agree that there is a noticeable shift in his or her typical characteristics during hypomania.