Postpartum Period And Lactation
The postpartum period is a particularly high-risk period for women with BD. Symptom emergence is often rapid and may occur in late pregnancy or within the first few days to weeks after delivery.
A Danish, population-based, cohort study found a 24-fold increase in the risk of postpartum mental disorders for women who have a first-degree relative with BD compared to a reference group. The diagnosis of BD is frequently missed in women with postpartum depression. Hypomania after childbirth may be misconstrued as the normal joy related to the experience of mother-hood. In a survey of 56 women referred for postpartum depression, over half had a bipolar diathesis. The primary diagnosis were: MDD , BD NOS , BD II , and BD I .
In a retrospective survey of 127 women who developed a bipolar affective puerperal psychosis within 4 weeks of childbirth, there was a high prevalence of early-onset hypomanic symptoms. The onset of symptoms occurred within 3 days of delivery in 73% of women. The most common symptoms were: Feeling excited, elated, or high not needing or not being able to sleep feeling active or energetic, and talking more or feeling very chatty. These types of symptoms should be carefully monitored in individuals at high risk of puerperal psychosis episodes.
Maintenance Therapy During Pregnancy
Treatment planning for pregnant women with BD should consider not only the relative risks of fetal exposure to lithium/divalproex, but also the high risk of recurrence and morbidity associated with stopping maintenance treatment.
During a prospective, cohort study involving 89 pregnant women with BD, the overall risk of at least one recurrence in pregnancy was 71%. Among women who discontinued versus continued lithium/divalproex treatment, recurrence risk was 2-fold greater and the median time to first recurrence was more than 4-fold shorter. Time to recurrence was 11-fold shorter with abrupt versus gradual discontinuation of lithium/divalproex. Most recurrences were depressive or mixed, and 47% occurred during the first trimester. Similarly, the risk of recurrence was substantially reduced when lamotrigine therapy was continued compared to discontinuation of lithium/divalproex therapies in a survey of 26 pregnant women with BD. The risk of new illness episodes was 30% with lamotrigine versus 100% after discontinuing lithium/divalproex, and time to recurrence was 12-fold longer.
Sign Up For Our Newsletter
Learn about opportunities to help change the conversation around mental health.
S2S by Mental Health America is an educational program intended to help inform people about options they have in getting help for mental health issues. It may suggest tools and resources that offer information, treatment services, do-it-yourself tools, and/or ways to connect with others. It does not represent its results as an exhaustive list of all services available to a given individual for a given behavioral health problem, or as an endorsement of specific treatments or services, or as a replacement for treatment or services as performed by a qualified provider. This site is currently in beta. Please send any and all suggestions, comments, or questions to us at .
You May Like: Fainting From Panic Attack
Which Gender Has More Genetic Disorders
One consequence is that boys are more prone to genetic diseases than girls. While the Y chromosome has retained fewer than 100 working genes, the X has more than 1,000 and is able to deploy them more intricately. This has resulted in the female genome becoming very different to that of men, the scientists said.
Men Show Bipolar Signs Earlier Than Women
Two major differences between men and women that have been documented are that men generally display symptoms earlier and are less prone to the depressive episodes of bipolar disorder.
Teens and young adults with bipolar disorder symptoms may think and talk about self-harm or suicide. If someone you know is expressing these thoughts, seek help immediately by calling the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 1-800-273-TALK .
Read Also: The Meaning Of Phobia
Does Bipolar Disorder Run In Families
Numerous studies have found that people with bipolar often have at least one close relative with depression or bipolar disorder.
Children who have one parent with the disorder have about a 10%-25% chance of developing the disorder themselves children with two parents with the disorder have a 10%-50% chance. If a non-identical twin sibling has the disorder, the chance that another sibling will have it is about 10%-25%.
Studies of identical twins have shown that genetics are not the only factor in determining who is at risk for bipolar disorder. Because identical twins share all the same genes, if bipolar disorder were purely hereditary, then all identical twins would share the disorder.
However, it has been found that if one identical twin has bipolar disorder, the chances of the other twin also having bipolar disorder ranges from 40% to 70%. It is important to note that bipolar disorder can show itself in different forms in individuals in the same families.
Scientists believe that bipolar disorder is not likely caused by any one single gene but more likely multiple genes, each contributing only a small amount to the vulnerability, acting together in combination with other environmental factors such as stress, lifestyle habits, and sleep. Scientists are working to identify these genes in the hopes that this will help doctors to better diagnose and treat the disorder.
Are Men Or Women More Likely To Develop Bipolar Disorder
Dr. Gary Sachs answers the question: ‘Bipolar Disorder Risk In Men, Women?’
— Question: Are men or women more likely to develop bipolar disorder?
Answer: Bipolar disorder is truly an equal opportunity condition. It strikes men and women equally, and if we went through any given census track in the United States — or any other country, in fact — we would find pretty much equal proportion of men and women.
On the other hand, women are actually much more likely to come to treatment and therefore if you would look in the clinic population, you would see an overrepresentation of women. Possibly, that is why the outcome for women across many medical conditions is better. They are just more likely to come to treatment.
Don’t Miss: What Is The Phobia Of Puke Called
Can Environmental Stress Increase The Risk Of Bipolar Disorder
People are sometimes diagnosed with bipolar following a stressful or traumatic event in their lives. These environmental triggers can include seasonal changes, holidays, and major life changes such as starting a new job, losing a job, going to college, family disagreements, , or a death in the family. Stress, in and of itself, does not cause bipolar disorder , but in people with the biological vulnerability to bipolar disorder, having effective skills for managing life stresses can be critical to a healthy lifestyle in order to avoid things that can aggravate the illness .
How Does Pregnancy Affect Bipolar Disorder
Women who have bipolar disorder are at risk for experiencing an episode after giving birth, especially a depressive episode.7,1 Women who experience a depressive or manic episode after giving birth are also more likely to have episodes after other pregnancies.2 Women with bipolar disorder are at high risk of developing postpartum psychosis, which is a medical emergency.
Talk to your doctor or nurse if you are trying to get pregnant or are pregnant. Some medicines are not safe to take during pregnancy.
You May Like: How To Get Motivated To Workout When Depressed
Bipolar Treatment Risks Around Pregnancy
Bipolar disorder itself does not appear to affect the safety of a pregnancy. However, some treatments can pose a risk to the unborn or breastfeeding baby. On the other hand, stopping treatment may increase the risk to the pregnant person.
In some cases, medications can worsen or trigger symptoms of bipolar disorder. For example, treating postpartum depression with antidepressants may increase the risk of psychosis, mania, and rapid cycling. In people with a family history of bipolar disorder, it may trigger the first symptoms.
It is crucial for a person and their doctor to weigh the risk of symptoms with the risk of adverse effects when developing a treatment plan. This may change before, during, and after pregnancy. For a person with severe symptoms, a doctor may recommend ECT, but experts recommend this only as a last resort.
Anyone with bipolar disorder who is considering pregnancy or pregnant should speak with their healthcare team, especially if bipolar symptoms are present.
Which Disorder Is More Common In Males Than Females
Sex plays a role in hypertension, diabetes, arthritis and in many neurological and psychiatric disorders. Depression and anxiety affect females more, while neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorders, early onset schizophrenia, and attention deficit hyperactivity, affect more males.
Don’t Miss: Phobia Essays
Study Participants And Record
The record linkage methods used to generate this cohort study have been reported previously. In brief, the cohort comprises all non-adopted men born in Sweden from 1950 to 1976 for whom both biological parents could be identified in the Multi-Generation Register. Using unique personal identification numbers we linked the Multi-Generation Register with the Military Service Conscription Register, Population and Housing Censuses records, the Cause of Death Register, and the National Hospital Discharge Register. Study approval was obtained from the Regional Ethics Committee, Stockholm.
Women And Men May Have Different Bipolar Disorder Biomarkers
- Penn State
- Men and women react differently to compounds associated with immune system response to bipolar disorder, according to an international team of medical researchers. The findings suggest that bipolar disorder could one day be diagnosed by measuring biological changes in the body, and that treatments could be tailored differently for men and women.
Men and women react differently to compounds associated with immune system response to bipolar disorder, according to an international team of medical researchers. The findings suggest that bipolar disorder could one day be diagnosed by measuring biological changes in the body, and that treatments could be tailored differently for men and women.
Bipolar disorder is a recurring mood condition that will affect about 1 to 4 percent of people in the United States over their lifetimes.
The study measured levels of zinc and neopterin, two immune system factors, in the blood of female and male hospital patients experiencing a major manic or depressive episode. Blood concentrations were compared to those of a healthy control group. Both zinc and neopterin are compounds that have previously been associated with inflammatory processes. Neopterin is an immune marker secreted by white blood cells when the immune system is activated, while the mineral zinc is required for the immune system to function. Researchers reported their findings in the journal Psychiatry Research.
Read Also: Blair Waldorf Bulimia
Women And Bipolar Disorder
- Women and people with bipolar II disorder are significantly more likely to experience periods of rapid cycling than men with the same condition. . Depression, anxiety and perceived stress in women with and without PCOS: A community-based study. Psychological Medicine,49)
- Other research findings indicate that women with bipolar disorder may have more depressive episodes and more mixed episodes than do men with the illness.
Also Check: Feratraphobia
How Is Bipolar Disorder Diagnosed
To diagnose bipolar disorder, doctors may do a blood test, talk to you about your moods and behaviors, and have you keep a daily record of your thoughts and activities.
With your permission, a doctor may also want to talk to your close friends or family members to better understand your behavior and determine whether you have showed symptoms of bipolar disorder.
Recommended Reading: Psychogenic Blackouts Anxiety
How Common Is Bipolar
- About 1 in 40 American adults live with bipolar disorder.
- About 1% of American teenagers live with bipolar disorder.
- Unlike many other mental illnesses, bipolar disorder affects men and women equally.
- Bipolar disorder tends to run in families.
- Although bipolar disorder is less common than depression and anxiety, it is the 6th leading cause of disability worldwide!
- It can take an average of 10 years from the time you first experience symptoms to the time you are actually diagnosed with bipolar disorder.
- Many people who live with bipolar disorder also struggle with addictions.
Most people who have bipolar disorder are diagnosed with something else first. They are often misdiagnosed with depression, ADHD, schizophrenia, or physical health conditions.
If you think you might have bipolar disorder, take our mental health screen. It can be scary to learn that you might have bipolar disorder. Fortunately, bipolar disorder is treatable. Youre not alone!
Why Some Men Ignore Their Bipolar Disorder Symptoms
Do bipolar disorder symptoms look different in males? Although it would be easier if everyone experienced the same symptoms and responded the same way to treatment, bipolar disorder is different for everyone. What’s more, certain biological differences affect how bipolar disorder symptoms manifest in men, compared to how symptoms of bipolar manifest in women. Let’s examine bipolar disorder symptoms in males and why they often get ignored.
Also Check: The Phobia Of Bees
How Does The Incidence Of Bipolar Affective Disorder Vary By Sex
BPI occurs equally in both sexes however, rapid-cycling bipolar disorder is more common in women than in men. The incidence of BPII is higher in females than in males. Most studies report a nearly equal male-to-female ratio in the prevalence of bipolar disorder however, most studies also report an increased risk in women for BPII/hypomania, rapid cycling, and mixed episodes.
Risk Factors And The Minority Stress Model
The minority stress model takes into account significant stressors that distinctly affect the mental health of those who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or another non-conforming gender identity. Some risk factors that contribute to declining mental health are heteronormativity, discrimination, harassment, rejection , stigma, prejudice, denial of civil and human rights, lack of access to mental health resources, lack of access to gender-affirming spaces , and internalized homophobia. The structural circumstance where a non-heterosexual or gender non-conforming individual is embedded in significantly affects the potential sources of risk. The compounding of these everyday stressors increase poor mental health outcomes among individuals in the LGBTQ+ community. Evidence shows that there is a direct association between LGBTQ+ individualsâ development of severe mental illnesses and the exposure to discrimination.
In addition, there are a lack of access to mental health resources specific to LGBTQ+ individuals and a lack of awareness about mental health conditions within the LGBTQ+ community that restricts patients from seeking help.
You May Like: Prodromal Period Schizophrenia
Can I Take Medicine For Bipolar Disorder While Breastfeeding
Yes. Certain medicines to treat bipolar disorder are safe to take while breastfeeding.7 Talk to your doctor about what medicines you can take after giving birth.
Learn more about medicines and breastfeeding in our Breastfeeding section. You can also enter your medicine into the LactMed® database to find out whether your medicine passes through your breastmilk and, if so, any possible side effects for your nursing baby.
So Youre Home After Treatment Now What
There is a constant effort toward researching bipolar disorder causes and treatments, including by the National Institutes on Mental Health. For now, knowing it can be managed is important to keep in mind.
Whether you are managing your bipolar disorder or supporting someone living with it, it can successfully be built into day-to-day living. You will already have skills in place upon leaving an outpatient treatment program treatment is a start but recovery takes time.
Continue with the following:
Also Check: Chances Of Getting Schizophrenia
Bipolar Disorder Affects Men And Women In Equal Numbers But How Its Symptoms Manifest Can Be Significantly Different These Nine Features Display This Disparity
Similar to many other health conditions, how bipolar disorder presents among people will vary from one individual to the next, as well as from one stage of life to the next.
That said, researchers have identified general trends that can be traced among certain groups of people living with this brain-based mood disorder.
For example, some commonalities exist among women with bipolar, and others are more often associated with men. Awareness of wider trends like these can enrich our understanding and improve our approach to managing the fluctuating symptoms of bipolar.
Evaluation Of Women With Bipolar Disorder
A complete assessment of women with BD is an integral part of management that includes a psychiatric and medical history, family and social history, and mental status exam with a focus on mood, psychotic features, anxiety, substance use, and eating disorder signs and symptoms.
Because women with BD, particularly Bipolar II disorder, frequently present with depression, it is important to probe carefully for a history of hypomanic or manic symptoms, which may not be recognized as problematic by the patient. In all the women who present as a case of major depression, especially those who have an early age of onset and do not respond well to antidepressant monotherapy, there is the possibility of BD. The most well-known are MDQ other options include Hypomania checklist.
Using structured clinical interviews, such as the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, may improve the identification of BD. The diagnosis of Bipolar II disorder, rapid cycling or mixed mania, which is more common in women, have an impact treatment options. The medical evaluation includes physical examination, weight and vital signs, laboratory tests , and toxicology screen. The assessment also includes the menstrual and reproductive history, and history of menstrual, pregnancy/postpartum, or menopausal-related mood or psychotic symptoms. The history of hormonal treatments and the effects of the treatment of mood are also important.
Read Also: Does Dehydration Cause Panic Attacks
Whats The Relevance Of Conduct Disorder And Substance Abuse In Men
Conduct disorder is a clinical definition, which can be characterized as a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. The person diagnosed with conduct disorder has to have met at least three criteria in the past 12 months, which may include bullying or threatening behaviour, use of a weapon, stealing from someones person and so on6.
There can be a misperception in the general public and media that people with bipolar disorder, especially men, are physically aggressive and dangerous. The real story is that although there is an increased risk of aggression in men with bipolar disorder this generally only applies to those who have substance abuse problems, that is, those who have addiction problems with tobacco, alcohol or other drugs7.
As well as affecting behavior towards others, we can also see from research that substance abuse, as well as male gender, and younger age of onset are also associated with not sticking with a treatment plan4.