Symptoms Of A Mixed Episode
A mixed episode of bipolar disorder features symptoms of both mania or hypomania and depression. Common signs of a mixed episode include depression combined with agitation, irritability, anxiety, insomnia, distractibility, and racing thoughts. This combination of high energy and low mood makes for a particularly high risk of suicide.
Bipolar Disorder Vs Manic Depression Are They The Same
Bipolar is defined as someone who experiences extreme highs and lows, normally sadness and happiness are the two emotions that are often experienced. With bipolar, it comes suddenly with no warning sign. Unless the person has been properly diagnosed, they may not realize they are bipolar. The highs in bipolar are known as mania, while the lows are called depression.
For many, depression is often associated with feelings of sadness however, depression is much more than that. It can impact ones feeling of self-worth as well as affect their outlook on life. Another thing to note with depression is that there are periods of depressive moments followed by feelings of normalcy.
Bipolar and depression are not entirely different diagnoses, but they describe the aspects of one another.
One thing that individuals who are diagnosed with bipolar and depression experience are mood swings.
Types Of Bipolar Disorder
There is not simply one kind of bipolar disorder diagnosis instead, there are several. These include:
Bipolar IThis type of bipolar disorder is characterized by manic or mixed episodes that persist for at least a week and/or depressive episodes that last at least two weeks. Individuals who suffer from bipolar I may experience severe mania that requires immediate medical attention and possibly even hospitalization.
Bipolar IIThis form of bipolar disorder is marked by a pattern of depressive episodes, which also sometimes comes with hypomanic episodes .
Bipolar Disorder Not Otherwise SpecifiedBipolar disorder not otherwise specified is typically the diagnosis given when a person has symptoms, which do not meet the full diagnostic criteria for bipolar I or II. Individuals, however, still experience serious changes in mood that are uncharacteristic of their normal behavior.
Cyclothymic DisorderThis is a mild form of bipolar disorder, whereas the individual experiences mild depression with hypomanic episodes for at least two years.
Rapid-Cycling Bipolar DisorderThis less-common type of bipolar disorder is typically diagnosed after an individual experiences four or more episodes of major depression, mania, or hypomania, over the course of one year.
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What Risks And Complications Can Bipolar Disorder Cause
There can be complications and risks for people who live with bipolar disorder. But these risks can be lessened with the right support and treatment.
What about suicide and self-harm?
You might have an illness where you experience psychosis, such as schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Your risk of suicide is estimated to be between 5% and 6% higher than the general population.
You are more likely to try to take your own life if you have a history of attempted suicide and depression. It is important that you get the right treatment for your symptoms of depression and have an up to date crisis plan.
There is also research that suggests you are 30% – 40% more likely to self-harm if you live with bipolar disorder.
What about financial risk?
If you have mania or hypomania you may struggle to manage your finances. You may spend lots of money without thinking about the effect that it may have on your life.
You could make a Lasting Power of Attorney. This is a legal process. This means that you pick someone that you trust to manage your finances if you lack mental capacity to manage them by yourself.
You can work with your carer and mental health team. You can form an action plan. This can say what they can do if you have a period of mania or hypomania and you start to make poor financial decisions.
What about physical health risk?
What about alcohol and drugs risk?
If you want advice or help with alcohol or drug use contact your GP.
What about driving risk?
Medications For Bipolar Disorder
Certain medications help with managing symptoms of bipolar disorder. Psychopharmaceuticals, for example, are used to help balance mood and can be used immediately after diagnosis. Some treatment plans may target sleep and anxiety, while others may seek to treat depressive episodes. This process may take some time, and a person might need to try several different medications before finding the ones that work best. Before starting a medication, it is important to:
- Understand the risks and benefits of the medication
- Report side effects to your doctor right away
- Tell the doctor about any other prescription drugs, over-the-counter medications, or supplements being taken
Once prescribed, the medication shouldnt be stopped without first consulting a health care provider first. Medications for bipolar disorder are meant to be taken consistently, as prescribed, even once a person starts feeling better. If an individual stops taking a prescribed medication, it may actually lead to a worsening of bipolar symptoms.
Depending on a persons situation and unique needs, in addition to medications, symptoms of bipolar disorder can be managed with the following treatment options:
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Why Was Manic Depression Changed To Bipolar
The shift to bipolar disorder The term bipolar disorder was first introduced during the third revision of the DSM in 1980, when psychiatrists agreed to do away with the term manic–depressive. Using the word, manic often led patients to be described as maniacs, a label fraught with stigma and judgment.
What Are The Different Types Of Bipolar Disorder
There are different types of bipolar disorder.
What is bipolar disorder I disorder?
A diagnosis of bipolar I disorder means you will have had at least 1 episode of mania that lasts longer than 1 week. You may also have periods of depression. Manic episodes will generally last 3-6 months if left untreated. Depressive episodes will generally last 6-12 months without treatment.
What is bipolar II disorder?
A diagnosis of bipolar II disorder means it is common to have symptoms of depression. You will have had at least 1 period of major depression. And at least 1 period of hypomania instead of mania.
What is bipolar I or II disorder with mixed features?
You will experience symptoms of mania or hypomania and depression at the same time. You may hear this being called mixed bipolar state. You may feel very sad and hopeless at the same time as feeling restlessness and being overactive.
What is bipolar I or II disorder with rapid cycling?
Rapid cycling means you have had 4 or more depressive, manic or hypomanic episodes in a 12-month period.
What is bipolar I or II with seasonal pattern?
Seasonal pattern means that either your depression, mania or hypomania is regularly affected in the same way by the seasons. For example, you may find that each winter you have a depressive episode, but your mania doesnt regularly follow a pattern.
There can be some similarities between bipolar I or II with seasonal pattern and another conditional called seasonal affective disorder.
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Bipolar Disorder: Symptoms & Causes
Bipolar symptoms include sudden, extreme changes in mood. The causes of bipolar disorder are ultimately unknown, though it appears to be the result of a chemical imbalance in the brain. Bipolar disorder likely has a genetic component, as the condition often runs in families.
Bipolar disorder is characterized by the presence of manic or hypomanic episodes. A manic episode is defined as a period of elevated feelings and impulsive behavior. Hypomania is a less severe form of mania. During a manic episode, a person may exhibit the following bipolar disorder symptoms:
- High energy
- Impulsive or high-risk behaviors
These episodes may occur with or without depressive episodes that feature many of the same symptoms of major depressive disorder.
Another possible sign of bipolar disorder is psychosis. While not every person with bipolar disorder will experience a psychotic episode, many do. Psychotic episodes involve experiencing delusions or hallucinations.
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When you face the low feelings of depression, hope can seem distant. But the good news, says Beth Esposito, MS, LPCC-S, LSW, of Samaritan Behavioral Health: Depression is a treatable illness.
Depression treatment that works for one person, however, may not work for another. Thats because depression varies from one person to the next in severity and type. Finding the right treatment for you may take time and fine-tuning, Esposito says.
She offers the following comparisons of two common types of depression and their symptoms, diagnosis and treatment:
- Bipolar depression, which is characterized by alternating periods of depression and mania
- Unipolar depression, more commonly known as major depression, which has no manic periods
If you experience one episode of depression, you are at risk of recurring bouts.
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Manic & Hypomanic Episode Symptoms
Both manic and hypomanic episodes include three or more of the below symptoms:
- Talking much more than usual
- Racing thoughts
- Feeling the need for less sleep
- Feeling abnormally upbeat, jumpy or wired
- Increased activity levels, energy or agitation
- Inflated sense of well-being and self-confidence
- Poor decision-making and increased impulsive behavior
Why Bipolar Disorder Instead Of Manic Depression
In the last few decades, the medical profession, and psychiatry specifically, has made a concerted effort to shift the vernacular to the official DSM diagnostic term of bipolar disorder. There are a number of reasons cited for this shift, including:
- Manic depression has generally been used to denote a wide array of mental illnesses, and as classification systems have become more sophisticated, the new term of bipolar disorder allows for more clarity in diagnosis.
- The terms “manic” and “mania” have been greatly stigmatized. Consider popular phrases such as “Manic Monday,” Animaniacs, homicidal maniac, and the like. Similarly, the term “depression” is used flippantly by the general public for periods of sadness that don’t really qualify as clinical depression.
- Bipolar disorder is more of a clinical term and therefore, less emotionally loaded.
- Manic depression emphasizes the predominant emotional symptoms but seems to exclude the physical and/or cognitive symptoms also present.
- The term manic depression excludes the cyclothymic or hypomanic versions of the disorder.
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Bipolar Disorder And Other Conditions
Some bipolar disorder symptoms are similar to those of other illnesses, which can make it challenging for a health care provider to make a diagnosis. In addition, many people may have bipolar disorder along with another mental disorder or condition, such as an anxiety disorder, substance use disorder, or an eating disorder. People with bipolar disorder have an increased chance of having thyroid disease, migraine headaches, heart disease, diabetes, obesity, and other physical illnesses.
Psychosis: Sometimes, a person with severe episodes of mania or depression may experience psychotic symptoms, such as hallucinations or delusions. The psychotic symptoms tend to match the persons extreme mood. For example:
- People having psychotic symptoms during a manic episode may have the unrealistic belief that they are famous, have a lot of money, or have special powers.
- People having psychotic symptoms during a depressive episode may falsely believe they are financially ruined and penniless, have committed a crime, or have an unrecognized serious illness.
As a result, people with bipolar disorder who also have psychotic symptoms are sometimes incorrectly diagnosed with schizophrenia. When people have symptoms of bipolar disorder and also experience periods of psychosis that are separate from mood episodes, the appropriate diagnosis may be schizoaffective disorder.
Anxiety: It is common for people with bipolar disorder to also have an anxiety disorder.
Spreading The Word About Bipolar Disorder
If you still use the outdated term or know people that do, take time to change your terminology or give others the proper information. Accuracy always matters.
No longer must they be confused, angered, and surprised by your symptoms. With the right information, they can know what you are going through and how to respond.
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How Does It Affect People
Bipolar disorder affects both men and women. For many people, the first symptoms show up in their early twenties. However, research has shown that the first episode of bipolar disorder is occurring earlier: It often shows up in adolescence, and even children can have the disorder.
Recent research suggests that kids and teens with bipolar disorder don’t always have the same behavioral patterns that adults with bipolar disorder do. For example, kids who have bipolar disorder may experience particularly rapid mood changes and may have some of the other mood-related symptoms listed below, such as irritability and high levels of anxiety. But they may not show other symptoms that are more commonly seen in adults.
Because brain function is involved, the ways people with bipolar disorder think, act, and feel are all affected. This can make it especially difficult for other people to understand their condition. It can be incredibly frustrating if other people act as though someone with bipolar disorder should just “snap out of it,” as if a person who is sick can become well simply by wanting to.
Bipolar disorder isn’t a sign of weakness or a character flaw it’s a serious medical condition that requires treatment, just like any other condition.
History Of Manic Depression
The term manic depression has Greek and Roman origins. They used the words mania and melancholia for people living with mental illness, which translates to our words manic and depressive. During the 19th century, two French doctors, Jules Baillarger and Jean-Pierre Falret, both separately described the condition to the Académie de Médicine in Paris.
Manic depression was coined by the early 20th-century German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin. He distinguished manic depression from schizophrenia because of the symptom-free periods that people with untreated manic depression experience.
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Symptoms Of Bipolar Disorder
Bipolar disorder is a mental illness characterized by extreme changes in thinking, mood, and behavior. Individuals who suffer with this condition also typically experience mania and depressive stateshence, why it used to be called manic depression or manic-depressive illness.
This disorder can vary from person to person, whereas some may experience mostly manic phases, while others may experience mostly depressive statesboth of which, however, have their own symptoms.
Symptoms of a depressive episode may include:
- Feelings of emptiness or worthlessness
- Behavioral changes
- Taking on more than one can handle
- Foregoing sleep or having little desire for it
- Unrealistic beliefs about ones abilities
- Showing high-risk behavior
Additionally, some people with bipolar disorder may experience something called hypomaniathis is similar to mania, but a less severe form. The main difference is that symptoms of hypomania do not typically hinder your life, like mania does. Now, it is also possible for individuals with bipolar disorder to experience mixed mood states whereas depressive and manic symptoms coexist. In these instances, symptoms may include agitation, insomnia, suicidal ideation, and extreme changes in appetite, all whilst feeling abnormally energized.
Why Has Manic Depression Lasted
It is impossible to fully say why manic depression continues to be the preferred term for some people. Some options include:
- People who were initially diagnosed before 1980 and never received more contemporary information regarding their condition.
- People who only sought out information regarding their mental health or the mental health of others from outdated or unreliable sources.
- People who still use manic depression because the term is self-explanatory and easier to understand compared to bipolar.
The final item is of particular importance. When people hear manic depression, they have a good understanding of the condition.
Bipolar disorder sounds different. It is less obvious and veiled in mystery. There is no unipolar disorder, though that term is sometimes used to describe depression.
So, it is likely that manic depression continues to be a popular word because of its ability to describe the condition that it names.
You may think that it doesnt matter what you call the condition because it is the same, but this might not be a good road to travel. In a world where people are continuously inundated with information, it can be complex and challenging to discriminate fact from fiction.
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Bipolar Disorder And Depression
Bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder are mental health conditions that share some similar features. In some cases, people may confuse the two. However, they are separate disorders that require different treatment approaches.
Some of this misunderstanding may be attributed to the term bipolar depression, which is a name given to the depressive episodes that are a part of bipolar disorder. To understand the difference between bipolar and depression, each disorder must be examined on its own. Once a person understands both disorders separately, it becomes easier to identify differences between bipolar and depression.
Causes Of Bipolar 1 And Bipolar 2
Scientists don’t know exactly what causes bipolar 1 or 2. They think several factors may contribute to both disorders, including:
If you have a parent or sibling with bipolar disorder, you have a greater chance of developing it. However, many people with a family history of bipolar never develop it themselves. There are even cases of identical twins where one twin has bipolar and the other doesn’t.
A stressful event can trigger a manic or depressive episode. If you’re going through an event like a difficult divorce, having financial problems, or an illness, it can play a role in developing bipolar disorder.
Brain structure and function
Researchers have discovered subtle differences in the average size or activation of certain brain structures. You can’t tell if someone has bipolar by looking at brain scans, though.
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Major Depressive Episode Symptoms
The third symptom of bipolar disorder is depression, which can severely impact a persons daily life. A person is experiencing a major depressive episode if they are experiencing five or more of the following symptoms:
- Severe loss of interest or feeling no pleasure in normal activities
- Noticeable weight loss when not trying to lose weight, weight gain, or changes in appetite
- Feeling sad, empty, hopeless, or teary all the time. In children/teens, this depressed mood can present as irritability
- Sleeping too much or not being able to sleep, as with insomnia
- Having less energy or always feeling tired
- Feeling worthless or overly guilty
- Struggling to concentrate or make decisions
- Feeling suicidal or having suicidal thoughts
Are you in a crisis?
While bipolar disorder can cause a person to feel depressed, this condition is not the same as getting diagnosed with depression. Bipolar disorder is marked by periods of two extremes: Mania or hypomania, the up, and major depressive episodes, the down. In contrast, depression causes moods and emotions that are always down without any moments of high energy.