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Are There Different Degrees Of Schizophrenia

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The 6 Types Of Schizophrenia

Are there different degrees of schizophrenia?

Schizophrenia is a serious psychotic disorder that affects 0.3-0.7% of the population..

It is characterized by the presence of delusions, hallucinations, disorganized behavior, and cognitive symptoms. However, there is no single disorder there are different types of schizophrenia.

In this article we will know the 6 types of schizophrenia that we can find in the DSM-IV-TR and in the ICD-10.based on their differentiated symptomatology. On the other hand, we will also talk about 2 other types of schizophrenia, according to the classification made by Timothy Crow in 1980: type I schizophrenia and type II schizophrenia.

  • Bibliographical references:
  • Frequently Asked Questions About Schizophrenia

    Schizophrenia is a chronic and severe mental disorder that affects how a person thinks, feels, and behaves. People with schizophrenia may seem like they have lost touch with reality. Although schizophrenia is not as common as other mental disorders, the symptoms can be very disabling.

    Schizophrenia is a severe and debilitating brain and behavior disorder affecting how one thinks, feels and acts. People with schizophrenia can have trouble distinguishing reality from fantasy, expressing and managing normal emotions and making decisions. Thought processes may also be disorganized and the motivation to engage in lifes activities may be blunted. Those with the condition may hear imaginary voices and believe others are reading their minds, controlling their thoughts or plotting to harm them.

    While schizophrenia is a chronic disorder, it can be treated with medication, psychological and social treatments, substantially improving the lives of people with the condition.

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    Schizophrenia affects men and women equally. It occurs at similar rates in all ethnic groups around the world. Symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions usually start between ages 16 and 30.

    Learn more about childhood-onset schizophrenia from this expert researcher:

    Find answers to more questions about Schizophrenia in our Ask the Expert section.

    What Causes Schizophrenia

    Nobody knows exactly what causes schizophrenia, it is likely to be the result of several factors. For example:

    • Stress. Some people can develop the illness as a result of a stressful event, such as the death of a loved one or the loss of a job.
    • Genetics. You are more likely to develop schizophrenia if you have a close relation with the illness.
    • Brain damage. This is usually damage that has stopped your brain from growing normally when your mother was pregnant. Or during birth.
    • Drugs and alcohol. Research has shown that stronger forms of cannabis increase your risk of developing schizophrenia.
    • A difficult childhood. If you were deprived, or abused, as a child this can increase your risk of developing a mental illness. Including schizophrenia.

    There is research to suggest that may be an association between menopause and schizophrenia. This may be due to the hormonal changes during this stage of life for women.

    You can find more information about:

    • Does mental illness run in families? by clicking here.
    • Drugs, alcohol and mental health by clicking here.
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    Talking To A Professional

    If you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of paranoid schizophrenia, it is important to seek professional help. A mental health professional can provide a diagnosis and develop a treatment plan that is right for you or your loved one. You donât have to go through this alone. There are many different types of support available, so please reach out for help.

    What Is The History Of Schizophrenia

    PPT

    The word schizophrenia has only been in use since about 1908, attributed to psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler. It was deemed a separate mental illness in 1887 by Emil Kraepelin. The positive, disorganized symptoms of psychosis were called hebephrenia. Despite that relatively recent history, it has been described throughout written history. Ancient Egyptian, Hindu, Chinese, Greek, and Roman writings described symptoms similar to the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. During medieval times, schizophrenia, like other illnesses, was often viewed as evidence of the sufferer being possessed by spirits or having evil powers.

    A number of accomplished individuals suffer from schizophrenia. The film A Beautiful Mind describes the life of John Nash, a noted scientist, and his struggles with what was previously called paranoid schizophrenia. The film The Soloist explores the challenges faced by Juilliard-trained musician Nathaniel Ayers as a result of schizophrenia. Despite those prominent portrayals of people with schizophrenia, this condition, like most mental illnesses, usually remains shrouded in secrecy and shame.

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    Treatment For Positive Symptoms In Schizophrenia

    Atypical antipsychotics typically do a good job at reducing the rate at which an individual experiences positive symptoms of schizophrenia. This is because they block dopamine receptors from being flooded with dopamine in the brain. There really arent any other current ways to treat these positive symptoms in schizophrenia other than utilize the pharmaceutical technology that is available.

    As science advances and we get a better understanding of the specifics of schizophrenia, we should be able to develop better treatment options. Until then, you may want to check out some natural remedies for schizophrenia that may be used as an effective augmentation strategy to reduce symptoms.

    Brain Structure And Chemicals

    Scientists believe that neurotransmitters can also be a cause of schizophrenia. Low levels or imbalances in some chemicals can lead to the development of schizophrenia. Dopamine can cause overstimulation in the brain of someone with schizophrenia.7 Glutamate might also play a role in schizophrenias development.

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    List Of Negative Symptoms Of Schizophrenia

    There are two types of negative symptoms. Differentiating between the two can be a challenge.

    Primary negative symptoms refer to those that are part of the disorder itself. These can occur during or between exacerbations.

    Secondary negative symptoms refer to those due to other things, such as:

    • medication
    • inappropriate emotions for the situation

    Positive symptoms are more apparent, so theyre likely to prompt diagnosis and treatment.

    On the other end of the spectrum, negative symptoms mean something is missing. That makes them easier to overlook as being linked to schizophrenia.

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    What Are The Treatments For Schizophrenia

    What are the treatments for schizophrenia?

    Ninety-nine percent of patients with schizophrenia need lifelong treatment with antipsychotic drugs, counseling and social rehabilitation, says Dr. Bowers.

    This will reduce their symptoms and help them get to a place of stability in their lives, she says.

    Antipsychotics are given orally or by injection. Depending on the type of schizophrenia, other medications may be needed as well:

    • People with paranoid schizophrenia usually respond well to antipsychotics, which decrease paranoid thinking and help them readjust to their environment.
    • People with catatonic schizophrenia require benzodiazepines to relax their muscles, allowing them to become more active and to react to the environment.
    • People with undifferentiated schizophrenia are slower to respond to antipsychotics because thinking is disturbed across the board. The medication makes them more alert and able to care for themselves, but it doesnt always clear their thinking, she says.
    • People with schizoaffective disorder require a combination of antipsychotics and antidepressants or mood stabilizers.

    Despite significant side effects, its important to keep taking these medications.

    When people go on and off their meds, their symptoms return, and they often end up back in the hospital, says Dr. Bowers. Also, the more episodes you have, the further you get from your healthy baseline.

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    Degrees Of Paranoid Schizophrenia

    There are different degrees of paranoid schizophrenia, which can be based on the severity of the symptoms. The three main degrees are mild, moderate, and severe.

    Mild paranoid schizophrenia

    Mild paranoid schizophrenia may only have a few of the symptoms. In this case, treatment may only include psychiatric care and support from family members.

    Moderate paranoid schizophrenia

    Moderate paranoid schizophrenia has more pronounced delusions, hallucinations, or disorganized behavior than mild cases of the disorder. Antipsychotic medications in addition to psychotherapy and social support are generally considerable treatment options.

    Severe paranoid schizophrenia

    Severe paranoid schizophrenia is the most severe form of the disorder. This type often requires hospitalization and intensive treatment with antipsychotic medications.

    The Phases And Recovery Of Schizophrenia

    Recovery from psychotic episodes is not something that can be predicted. Some people may only experience one psychotic episode that is full-blown. Others have several different episodes. Some people may recover completely, however it is recommended that patients continue with lifelong treatment and support so as to avoid relapsing.

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    What Happens At The Hospital

    About one-third of people with schizophrenia dont believe anything is wrong with them. Many more dont seek help on their own, for cultural reasons or because they lack resources.

    So problems often come to light only when their erratic behavior or other troubles trigger a crisis. Patients are often brought to the hospital by family, teachers or the police, says Dr. Bowers.

    To decide whether to admit someone, psychiatrists consider whether patients pose a risk to themselves or others whether they can take care of themselves and whether they could benefit from hospital treatment.

    Are There Different Degrees Of Schizophrenia

    Types of Schizophrenia: Modern Classification and Old Types

    There are actually several different types of schizophrenia depending on the persons symptoms, but generally, the main types of schizophrenia include paranoid schizophrenia, catatonic schizophrenia, disorganized or hebephrenic schizophrenia, residual schizophrenia, and undifferentiated schizophrenia.

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    When Does Paranoid Schizophrenia Start To Show Up

    Schizophrenia is a kind of psychosis, which means your mind doesnt agree with reality. It affects how you think and behave. This can show up in different ways and at different times, even in the same person. The illness usually starts in late adolescence or young adulthood. People with paranoid delusions are unreasonably suspicious of others.

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    Current Psychiatry

    Dr. Karadag is a PGY-3 Psychiatry Resident, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey. Dr. Aggarwal is Director, Residency Training Program, Associate Professor, Department of Psychiatry, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey.

    DisclosuresThe authors report no financial relationships with any companies whose products are mentioned in this article, or with manufacturers of competing products.

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    Positive Symptoms Of Schizophrenia: Things That Might Start Happening

    Positive symptoms are highly exaggerated ideas, perceptions, or actions that show the person canât tell whatâs real from what isnât. Here the word positive means the presence of symptoms. They can include:

    • Hallucinations. People with schizophrenia might hear, see, smell, or feel things no one else does. The types of hallucinations in schizophrenia include:
    • Auditory. The person most often hears voices in their head. They might be angry or urgent and demand that they do things. It can sound like one voice or many. They might whisper, murmur, or be angry and demanding.
    • Visual. Someone might see lights, objects, people, or patterns. Often itâs loved ones or friends who are no longer alive. They may also have trouble with depth perception and distance.
    • Olfactory and gustatory. This can include good and bad smells and tastes. Someone might believe theyâre being poisoned and refuse to eat.
    • Tactile. This creates a feeling of things moving on your body, like hands or insects.
  • Delusions. These are beliefs that seem strange to most people and are easy to prove wrong. The person affected might think someone is trying to control their brain through TVs or that the FBI is out to get them. They might believe theyre someone else, like a famous actor or the president, or that they have superpowers. Types of delusions include:
  • Persecutory delusions. The feeling someone is after you or that youâre being stalked, hunted, framed, or tricked.
  • Cognitive Symptoms & Thinking Problems

    What Is Schizophrenia?

    These symptoms reflect how well the personâs brain learns, stores, and uses information.

    Someone with schizophrenia might have a hard time with their working memory. For example, they may not be able to keep track of different kinds of facts at the same time, like a phone number plus instructions.

    Along with having trouble paying attention, it can be hard for them to organize their thoughts and make decisions.

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    The 4 Most Common Types Of Schizophrenia

    Its safe to conclude at this point that schizophrenia is a complex disease. Living with schizophrenia isnt easy, but understanding more about the disorder and its many ramifications can help you deal with your own issues or help a loved one who is struggling. Here is some valuable information about the four most common types of schizophrenia to get you started.

    1. Paranoid Schizophrenia

    Paranoid schizophrenia is the most common manifestation of the disorder. According to the International Classification of Diseases, its most prominent symptom is constituted by hallucinations and delusions. Due to the paranoid aspect, these usually consist of unusual feelings of being watched, followed or even hunted down.

    Unlike the other common types, paranoid schizophrenia can also develop at a later age, while others usually start to show in early childhood. This was the case of Nobel prize laureate mathematician John Forbes Nash Jr., whose struggle with this particular illness has been documented in the biographic film A Beautiful Mind.

    2. Catatonic Schizophrenia

    Although its rarer than other types of schizophrenia, catatonic behavior is still widely exhibited by schizophrenics, as well as people who suffer from other mental conditions, such as depression or bipolar disorder. Catatonia implies falling into behavioral extremes, much like manic and depressive episodes.

    3. Disorganized Schizophrenia

    4. Undifferentiated Schizophrenia

    What Are The Symptoms Of Schizophrenia And How Is It Diagnosed

    How is schizophrenia diagnosed?

    Only a psychiatrist can diagnose you with schizophrenia after a full psychiatric assessment. You may have to see the psychiatrist a few times before they diagnose you. This is because they need to see how often you are experiencing symptoms.

    There are currently no blood tests or scans that can prove if you have schizophrenia. So, psychiatrists use manuals to diagnose schizophrenia and other mental illnesses.

    The 2 main manuals used by medical professionals are the:

    • International Classification of Diseases which is produced by the World Health Organisation , or
    • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual which is produced by the American Psychiatric Association .

    NHS doctors use the ICD-10.

    The manuals explain which symptoms should be present, and for how long for you to receive a diagnosis. For example, according to the NHS you need to be hearing voices for at least 1 month before you can be diagnosed. Mental health professionals may say you have psychosis before they diagnose you with schizophrenia.

    What is the future of diagnosis in schizophrenia?There are many research studies being conducted across the world on how to better diagnose schizophrenia. For example, a recent study found through looking at images of the brain, there may be different sub-types of schizophrenia.

    What are the symptoms of schizophrenia?

    The symptoms of schizophrenia are commonly described as positive symptoms or negative symptoms. This doesnt mean that they are good or bad.

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    What Are The Three Phases Of Schizophrenia

    Research has identified schizophrenia to have three phases, these are as follows:

    • Prodromal
    • Acute / active
    • Residual

    It may sometimes seem as though schizophrenia suddenly develops out of nowhere, this, however, is not the case. There is no such thing as waking up one morning and have bouts of full-blown psychosis. The disease instead consists of psychotic symptoms that slowly start to appear, and the sufferer begins to show a way of thinking that is distorted and has difficulty relating to others.

    The phases can be explained accordingly:

    Differences Between Men And Women

    Neuroleptics (antipsychotics)

    No longer talking about the types of schizophrenia, but in relation to the differences in the presentation of the disorder between men and women, we find the following: in men, the age of onset is earlier than in women In relation to premorbid adjustment, it is worse in men than in women.

    Finally, a third difference between both sexes is that in men the negative symptoms stand out, and in women, the positive and affective ones.

    Bibliographical references:

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    What Are Schizophrenia Disorders

    Schizophrenia disorders are mental health disorders that interfere with a persons perception of reality. They are often characterized by delusions and hallucinations. These disorders are usually severe and require mental health care in order for the person to manage their symptoms and lead a more normal life.

    How Is Schizophrenia Diagnosed

    A diagnosis for schizophrenia is often first made in the active stage. This is when symptoms become most obvious. Other people may recognize the disordered thoughts and behavior patterns for the first time.

    At that point, a doctor may work with friends and family members to understand when early symptoms began. Symptoms of the first phase are often not recognized until a person is in the active phase.

    Once a diagnosis is made, a doctor will also be able to determine when the active phase is over based on symptoms and behaviors.

    Where to Find Help

    Advocacy organizations can help you find immediate help. They can also connect you with local resources that can help you find sustained, long-term treatment. These mental health resources include:

    Most people with schizophrenia arent diagnosed until the second phase, once symptoms worsen and become more obvious.

    At this point, treatment options include:

    Where to Seek Emergency Care

    If you or a loved one is experiencing suicidal thoughts or dangerous behaviors, seek emergency care:

    • Dial 911 or your local emergency number
    • Visit a hospital or emergency department

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    What Professionals Diagnose And Treat Schizophrenia Are There Particular Tests That Assess Schizophrenia

      As is true with virtually any mental health diagnosis, there is no one test that definitively indicates that someone has schizophrenia. Therefore, health care professionals like psychiatrists or other psychiatric medication prescribers, clinical psychologists or primary care providers diagnose this illness by gathering comprehensive medical, family, and mental health information. Patients tend to benefit when the practitioner performs a systematic review of their client’s entire life and background. Examples of this include the person’s gender, sexual orientation, cultural, religious and ethnic background, socioeconomic status, family, and other social relationships. The symptom sufferer might be asked to fill out a self-test that the professional will review if the person being evaluated is able to complete it.

      The practitioner will also either perform a physical examination or request that the individual’s primary care doctor perform one. The medical assessment will usually include lab tests to evaluate the person’s general health and to explore whether or not the individual has a medical condition or has been exposed to certain medications that might produce psychological symptoms.

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