The Issue Of Genius And Madness
maintained with rare stories of incredible art use when involved people fought against the discouragement or liquor ill-use. Previous studies that focused primarily on schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have given some experimental evidence of the relationship between creativity and psychopathology.We recently found that, patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and their non-analyzed relatives overrepresented in innovative professions in contrast to occupations
Push Is On To Reclassify Schizophrenia As A Neurologic Disease
Batya Swift Yasgur, MA, LSW
A mental health advocacy group has spearheaded a new initiative to reclassify schizophrenia as a neurologic, rather than a psychiatric, disease. The action is designed to reduce stigma and ultimately obtain more research funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention .
In May 2018, the Schizophrenia and Related Disorders Alliance of America submitted a request to have schizophrenia included in the implementation of the National Neurological Conditions Surveillance System with the 21st Century Cures Act a new CDC program that was allotted $5 million by Congress to collect data on the prevalence of and risk factors for neurologic conditions in the US population.
“At a basic level, the distinction between neurological and psychiatric conditions is artificial,” Raymond Cho, MD, professor of psychiatry, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, and chairman of the SRDAA, told Medscape Medical News.
“It’s a ‘no-brainer’ that neurological and psychiatric disorders should be considered under the same umbrella, since everything is mediated by the brain, neural systems, and neurochemistry, but the problem is convincing the rest of society, lawmakers, insurance providers, family members, and patients of this,” he said.
Emotional Or Behavioral Disorders
this section is what are the primary implications of biological causes of EBD for teachers? The primary implications of biological causes of EBD for teachers are genetics, parental neglect or abuse, malnutrition, and neurological damage. Genetic predisposition, neglect, malnutrition, and brain injury are all more likely to be major contributors to disruptive behavior when they are connected with inconsistent behavior management at school. Biological and social risk factors together offer the best explanations
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Stability Over Time/course Of Illness
The potential validity of SNS as schizophrenia trait features depends not only on them not being secondary to other illness factors but also on their stability across the course of illness. Multiple studies have assessed the presence of SNS in first-episode patients, and in all cases they have documented the early onset of neurological signs. The 4 studies that have compared first-episode patients with controls found greater SNS in patients than in controls.
In light of the fact that SNS are already present by the time of illness onset, the question then becomes whether neurological impairment follows a progressive deterioration or remains stable across the illness course. Cross-sectional studies have either examined correlations between neurological impairment and illness duration or compared groups of patients who were at different stages of illness, mainly through the inclusion of a first-episode subgroup. The vast majority of studies, although not all, have failed to find correlations between neurological impairment and illness duration. Comparisons among groups of patients at different stages of illness have also provided evidence for the nonprogression of neurological impairment.
Neurology And Mental Health: Connections And Similarities You Need To Know
Neurology and mental health conditions share many common symptoms, which can make getting a correct diagnosis difficult. If your first thought when experiencing anxiety or a panic attack is that you may be having a psychiatric episode, youre not alone it is a common misconception.
In fact, many treatable medical diagnoses present with the same signs as psychological disorders.
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Eyes Hint At Hidden Mental
Schizophrenia a severe mental-health condition that often involves psychosis has long been an enigma. Before the early twentieth century, psychiatrists thought that it comprised several disorders, which were given labels such as catatonic syndrome or adolescent insanity. And for much of the past century, researchers considered schizophrenia to be an illness of only the mind, and sometimes even attributed it to bad parenting. Although it has since been established that schizophrenias symptoms have biological origins, and some risk factors have been identified, its precise causes remain unclear, and its diagnosis is complicated and can be subjective.
To improve diagnosis and tracking of schizophrenia, researchers have been hunting for biomarkers measurable physiological signals that can indicate a conditions onset and progression. And in the past decade, research has begun to point to a promising source of such signals: the eye. For instance, the thickness of a persons retina the layer of light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye or the retinas response to light could provide early signs that an individual is affected by or at risk of schizophrenia. The retina is essentially a proxy for whats happening in the brain, says Steven Silverstein, a clinical psychiatrist at Rutgers University in Piscataway, New Jersey.
How Do You Understand Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia is a chronic brain disorder that affects less than 1% of the population in the United States. Symptoms of schizophrenia include delusions, hallucinations, disordered speech, difficulty thinking, and a lack of desire. Schizophrenia causes mental problems such as depression and anxiety. There are different types of schizophrenia including paranoid schizophrenia, which involves fear that others are out to get you undifferentiated schizophrenia and residual schizophrenia.
The etiology of schizophrenia is not known. Some factors may increase your risk of developing schizophrenia including having one or more close relatives who have the disease, being male, having a genetic mutation for the disease, experiencing trauma during development of the brain , and using marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, opiates, or other drugs during pregnancy. Gender, genetics, trauma during brain development, and drug use all appear to play important roles in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.
There is no cure for schizophrenia. However, with proper treatment many people can lead normal lives despite symptoms of the disease. Psychiatrists often treat schizophrenia with medications, therapy, or a combination thereof. The goal of treatment is to make the patient as comfortable as possible while trying to minimize symptoms and prevent relapse.
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Cognitive And Pharmacological Therapies
Several therapies, both cognitive and pharmacological, have been advocated in the treatment of schizophrenia. Psychosocial therapies have proved effective in dealing with the disorder, at least by reducing its severity .
These may include cognitive behavioral therapy , training in life skills, family therapy, provision of economic assistance, providing employment opportunities, and use of psychosocial approaches in minimizing drug abuse and management of body weight. If a schizophrenic is taken a family therapy, the frequency of hospitalization and relapse rates is highly reduced .
The employment of CBT as a method of dealing with schizophrenia is yet to yield reliable results as far as symptom reduction or relapse prevention is concerned. Researchers are still exploring the role of art and drama as alternative therapy measures for schizophrenia.
Owing to the gap left by cognitive therapies in handling schizophrenia, pharmacological alternatives exist to treat or prevent the severe impacts of the disorder. Pharmacology refers to the science of drugs in general ranging from their formulation, uses and their effects on the individuals.
Schizophrenia as a neurological disorder has been treated by the use of antipsychotic medications which deal with those symptoms that are not experienced by normal people expect the schizophrenics like distorted cognitive and speech patterns, among other hallucinations .
Case Study Of Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder that is commonly misunderstood. Due to the stigma surrounding mental illness, people are somewhat unaware of the biological reasons people act the way they do. Schizophrenia is highly linked to biological abnormalities in the brain. These abnormalities affect how the brain works, and in doing so, affect how the individual interacts with him/herself, and the outside world. By means of Jonathans case study, the biological and neurological element of schizophrenia
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Whats The Difference Between Schizophrenia And Psychosis
In a nutshell, psychosis is a symptom, but schizophrenia is a disease diagnosis. Patients with schizophrenia may exhibit signs of psychosis, however not all people with psychosis are diagnosed with schizophrenia. In psychiatry, psychosis is defined as a state in which a person has erroneous feelings. These feelings can be related to reality or not related to reality.
Psychosis can be acute or chronic. With acute psychosis, there are changes in a patient’s mental state that come on suddenly, such as during a psychotic episode. With chronic psychosis, these changes have been going on for some time now, such as when a person is experiencing delusions or hallucinations. Psychiatric patients often use the term “off my meds” to describe an acute change in their mood or perception while taking medication. Being “off my meds” is not good it means that you should resume your regular dose as soon as possible to prevent any additional symptoms from arising.
Schizophrenia is a brain disorder characterized by problems with thinking and feeling. Schizophrenics may experience problems with speech, movement, emotion, or sense of self. Symptoms usually appear in adolescence or early adulthood and cause serious difficulties for the patient’s daily life. There are different types of treatments for schizophrenia, such as medications, psychotherapy, and electroconvulsive therapy . ECT is used to treat severe cases that do not respond to other treatments.
Short Assessment Of General Intellectual Ability
As described above schizophrenia patients show a substantial and very severe generalized impairment. Therefore, IQ total score can be a useful single descriptive measure of overall intellectual ability and also provide an interpretive context for other test results. Blyler et al78 developed a short form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales -III50 that was highly predictive of full-scale IQ in individuals with schizophrenia . We recently demonstrated that a two-subtest combination could also provide accurate full-scale IQ estimates in schizophrenia patients .
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Behavioral Symptoms And Functional Deficits
Schizophrenia has been known as one of the most common neurological disorders especially in the United States. This disorder is highly chronic, harsh, and with the capability of paralyzing the victims brain and hence cognitive abilities. An individual suffering from the disorder usually develops improper perception of reality.
According to Salters-Pedneault , it is normally associated with auditory delusions or hallucinations, distorted thinking as well as talking patterns, and a general dysfunction in the social and occupational dimensions of everyday life. Furthermore, a schizophrenic normally exhibits notable cognitive deficits like memory loss, asocial characteristics, and a general lack of concern.
For individuals prone to develop the disorder, the early stages of adulthood are usually associated with the commencement of schizophrenia. Most significantly, schizophrenia may only be detected by the use of personal experiences and observable behavior of the victim due to the fact that laboratory testing has not yet been developed.
Schizophrenia As A Neurological Disorder
The positive symptoms of schizophrenia can be partially explained by the various evolutions of the dopamine hypothesis. Negative symptoms have been explained through brain abnormalities and/or damage.
Many studies have found evidence of loss of brain tissue in CT and MRI scans of schizophrenic patients. In one of the earliest studies, Weinberger and Wyatt obtained CT scans of 80 chronic schizophrenics and 66 normal controls of the same mean age . They found that the relative ventricle size of the schizophrenic patients was more than twice as great as that for normal control subjects. Hulshoff-Pol et al found that although everyone loses some cerebral grey matter as they age, the rate of tissue loss is greater in schizophrenia patients.
What could be causing these abnormalities? Evidence from many studies suggests a myriad of factors: season of birth, viral epidemics, population density, latitude, prenatal malnutrition, Rh incompatibility, and maternal stress.
Studies have shown that people born during late winter and early spring are more likely to develop schizophrenia this is known as seasonality effect. Kendell and Adams studied the month of birth of over 13,000 schizophrenic patients born in Scotland between 1914 and 1960. They found that disproportionately more patients were born in February, March, April and May. These results have been confirmed by studies in several parts of the world, including Japan and Taiwan .
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Cognitive Deficits In Other Psychotic Disorders
The evidence presented in the previous sections indicates that individuals with schizophrenia present severe impairments in attention, executive functions, episodic memory, certain aspects of working memory performance, and processing speed. Cognitive functions that are relatively spared in schizophrenia include language functions, perceptual processes and nondeclarative memory. Studies have suggested that patients with other psychotic disorders could also demonstrate a disruption of normal cognitive performance, but results have not always been consistent.
The question of specificity of cognitive impairment has been recently investigated in two large epidemiological samples.53,54 These studies compared neuropsychological functioning between psychotic patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, bipolar mania, and depressive psychosis, and have shown that differences in neuropsychological performance between schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders are quantitative and not qualitative. Cognitive deficits are present in all psychotic disorders following the first psychotic episode, but are most severe and pervasive in schizophrenia and least so in bipolar manic disorder .
Neuropsychological performance profile of schizophrenia, psychotic major depressive disorder, and psychotic bipolar disorder. Performance was compared with healthy controls and is presented in standard deviation units . Data are from the AESOP first-episode study53
What Is Psychosis About Symptoms And Disorders
As such, psychosis in current psychiatric classification systems is restricted to psychotic symptomscomprising hallucinations and delusionsand psychotic disorders, syndromes where psychotic symptoms dominate. Therefore, psychosis is characterized by what is grossly observedlikewise the other diagnostic categories in DSM-5. More subtle notions of psychosis like Bleulers four As and the phenomenological approach are abandoned.
Using a phenomenic rather than a phenomenological approach, for instance, has some advantages for research, communication, and legal purposes. Nevertheless, there are some serious problems inherent to this method.
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How Common Is Schizophrenia In 2020
Important information Schizophrenia is a chronic and severe mental illness that affects around 20 million individuals worldwide . It is characterized by severe disturbances of thought processes , emotional instability, social withdrawal, and loss of interest in life. These problems can be so severe that they interfere with a person’s ability to work, study, or care for himself/herself.
The prevalence of schizophrenia is approximately 0.5% worldwide. This means that one out of every 200 people will develop this condition at some point in their lives.
This rate is similar to the rate reported two decades ago. Since then, there has been some improvement in diagnosis, leading to an increase in the number of cases identified. This increase is expected to continue due to the growing population and improved diagnostic tools.
What causes schizophrenia? The cause of schizophrenia is not clear but it may be related to genetic factors, environmental influences, or both. Some studies have also suggested that immune system abnormalities may play a role in the development of schizophrenia.
Schizophrenia is classified into three main types: paranoid, undifferentiated, and residual. Paranoia refers to having false beliefs about other people.
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Neurological Disorders : A Brief Synopsis Of Schizophrenia And Alzheimer ‘s Disease
Neurological Disorders: A Brief Synopsis of Schizophrenia and Alzheimers diseaseMelissa K. MarkPSY 410Annette Edwards, PhDNovember, 2015AbstractNeurological disorders are diseases of the brain, spine, and connecting nerves, and of the more than 600 neurological diseases , Schizophrenia, and Alzheimers disease comprise some of the most devastating effect on the human ability to function as there is currently not a cure for either debilitating disease. This paper
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The Biological Explanation Of Schizophrenia
not really thereor to have delusions, persistent notions that do not match reality. This is what happens to one who suffers from schizophrenia.Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder, where an individuals contact with reality is lost or highly distorted. According to the psychiatric manual-Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Schizophrenia is characterised by delusions, hallucinations, disorganised speech and catatonic behaviour (which is characterised by motor immobility
Biochemical Research And The Impact On Our Understanding Of The Effects Of Schizophrenia
Disruptions of neural biochemical processes have been extrapolated both from the effects of psychomimetic drugs and from the actions of symptom-reducing neuroleptic drugs. Drugs such as amphetamine and L-dopa, which cause psychotic conditions , are known to involve excesses of dopamine release . Although different classes of neuroleptics are known to block acetylcholine, noradrenaline, or serotinin transmission, all of them block dopamine, and symptom reduction is thought to emanate from the latter . Within the dopamine theory two models of dysfunction have been proposed: autoreceptor excess, and postsynaptic receptor mechanism deficit. Different classes of neuroleptics vary in whether action is pre- or postsynaptic, but an inhibition of dopamine transmission is effected by all classes.
Two classes of dopamine receptors have been identified-D1 and DP as previously mentioned, and it is believed that they are related to schizophrenia and neuroleptic effects. Distinctions between the two are based upon their actions on adenylate cyclase: stimulatory for Dl and distinct or inhibitory for D2 . Dl
neurons, which project from the substantia nigra to the corpus striatum, are implicated in Parkinsons disease. Inhibition of Dl receptors is believed to be the
However, clozapine also acts antagonistically on cholinergic, a-adrenergic, his-
Several recent studies have also implicated Dl receptor blocks in the therapeutic effects of clozapine.
and brain stem.
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Symptoms And Symptoms Of Schizophrenia Essay
SchizophreniaOver 2 million Americans suffer with schizophrenia each day. A vast majority of people diagnosed with schizophrenia suffer from hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and disorganized speech. Hallucinations are sensory experiences in the absence of external stimulation therefore, people with schizophrenia may see people or things that are not really there and may even hold conversions or have relationships with these people. Delusions are false beliefs about reality. Someone with