Why Do Some People Develop Ptsd And Other People Do Not
Not everyone who lives through a dangerous event develops PTSDmany factors play a part. Some of these factors are present before the trauma others become important during and after a traumatic event.
Risk factors that may increase the likelihood of developing of PTSD include:
- Exposure to dangerous events or traumas
- Getting hurt or seeing people hurt or killed
- Childhood trauma
- Feeling horror, helplessness, or extreme fear
- Having little or no social support after the event
- Dealing with extra stress after the event, such as loss of a loved one, pain and injury, or loss of a job or home
- Having a personal history or family history of mental illness or substance use
Resilience factors that may reduce the likelihood of developing PTSD include:
- Seeking out support from friends, family, or support groups
- Learning to feel okay with ones actions in response to a traumatic event
- Having a coping strategy for getting through and learning from a traumatic event
- Being prepared and able to respond to upsetting events as they occur, despite feeling fear
Triggers Of Complex Ptsd
People who have PTSD or complex PTSD can react to different life situations as if they are reliving their trauma.
The particular situation that triggers a person can be random and varies depending on their specific trauma history. A person can be triggered by situations, images, smells, conversations with others, and more.
This triggering can manifest as a fight-or-flight response triggered by the amygdala, responsible for processing emotions in the brain.
When this happens, a persons brain can perceive that they are in danger, even if they are not. This is known as an amygdala hijack and can also result in things like flashbacks, nightmares, or being easily startled.
People with PTSD or complex PTSD may exhibit certain behaviors in an attempt to manage their symptoms.
Examples of such behaviors include:
- misusing alcohol or drugs
- avoiding unpleasant situations by becoming people-pleasers
- lashing out at minor criticisms
These behaviors can develop as a way to deal with or try to forget about the original trauma and the resulting symptoms in the present.
Friends and family of people with complex PTSD should be aware that these behaviors may represent coping mechanisms and attempts to gain control over emotions.
To recover from PTSD or complex PTSD, a person can seek treatment and learn to replace these behaviors with ones focused on healing and self-care.
Often, people with complex PTSD have experienced prolonged trauma such as ongoing physical, emotional, or sexual abuse.
Ptsd: Top 5 Signs Of Ptsd You Need To Know
According to the National Center for PTSD, posttraumatic stress disorder, about 8 million Americans have PTSD during any given year. While the signs of PTSD in women don’t differ greatly from signs of PTSD in men, women are more likely to develop PTSD, with a lifetime incidence of 1 in 10. For men, its 1 in 25.
Yet an even higher number of Americans experience and show signs of trauma each year. So when does suffering a traumatic event lead to suffering from PTSD?
PTSD is a mental health diagnosis characterized by five events or symptoms, says Dr. Chad Wetterneck, PhD, clinical supervisor for Rogers Behavioral Health.
Here, Dr. Wetterneck walks us through each sign of PTSD:
However, there are proven treatments that greatly reduce the symptoms and help people move forward with healthy lives.
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Symptoms Of Ptsd In Adults
Over 70% of adults living in the United States have gone through some type of traumatic event at some point in their lives, according to the National Council on Behavioral Health. In honor of PTSD awareness month, this article reveals that if youve experienced a traumatic event, youre far from alone, based on PTSD statistics. Many of these adults seek treatment, and you should seek treatment if you notice any signs of PTSD. Taking a PTSD test can help you reach a diagnoses. Traumatic events often manifest in post-traumatic stress disorder, more commonly known as PTSD, which is a mental health disorder that can cause deep feelings of fear, the tendency to be easily startled, and a history of trauma, whether occurring in daily life or due to a one-time circumstance like a natural disaster. PTSD images often stay with the individual, and treatment for this can be really helpful. It’s also important to understand the differences in PTSD symptoms in women and men, the challenges of delayed onset PTSD, and which treatment options work best.
Emotional Symptoms Of Ptsd
The emotional symptoms of PTSD are depression, worry, intense guilt and feeling emotionally numb. Another symptom is anhedonia, which is characterized by a loss of interest in formerly enjoyable activities. The National Center for Biotechnology Information states that anhedonia plays a part in predicting psychiatric comorbidity, or the presence of more than one psychiatric disorder.
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Why Do Ptsd & C
When we feel stressed emotionally, our bodies release hormones called cortisol and adrenaline. This is the bodys automatic way of preparing to respond to a threat, sometimes called the fight, flight or freeze response.
Studies have shown that someone with PTSD will continue producing these hormones when theyre no longer in danger, which is thought to explain some symptoms such as extreme alertness and being easily startled.
Some people also experience physical symptoms similar to symptoms of anxiety, such as headaches, dizziness, chest pains and stomach aches.
These altered cortisol levels also cause other physical symptoms such as your skin scarring more easily, hair loss, digestive issues, skin issues, and cold hands & feet, find out more in our blog article, 10 unexpected physical symptoms of PTSD here.
How Does A Person With Ptsd Act
People with PTSD can act in a variety of ways. The National Institute of Mental Health notes that to be diagnosed with PTSD, you must have at least 6 symptoms from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual . However, not every person with PTSD has the same exact symptoms or experiences the same exact fears or flashbacks.
One person with PTSD may struggle with substance abuse or regular substance use, while another may struggle more with inner thoughts, suicidal thoughts, and seeking treatment. There is nothing wrong with whatever way you experience your condition, but make sure to speak to a counselor if youre unsure about your diagnosis. Support groups are also available for those who want to speak to others who understand. Family therapy is a good option if your family is not the cause of your trauma. Otherwise, it may be best for you to try another type of treatment.
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Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder
Disinhibited social engagement disorder occurs in children who have experienced severe social neglect or deprivation before the age of 2. Similar to reactive attachment disorder, it can occur when children lack the basic emotional needs for comfort, stimulation and affection, or when repeated changes in caregivers prevent them from forming stable attachments.
Disinhibited social engagement disorder involves a child engaging in overly familiar or culturally inappropriate behavior with unfamiliar adults. For example, the child may be willing to go off with an unfamiliar adult with minimal or no hesitation. These behaviors cause problems in the childs ability to relate to adults and peers. Moving the child to a normal caregiving environment improves the symptoms. However, even after placement in a positive environment, some children continue to have symptoms through adolescence. Developmental delays, especially cognitive and language delays, may co-occur along with the disorder.
The prevalence of disinhibited social engagement disorder is unknown, but it is thought to be rare. Most severely neglected children do not develop the disorder. Treatment involves the child and family working with a therapist to strengthen their relationship.
What Are The Signs Of Ptsd
The Mayo Clinic mentions several reoccurring symptoms, including fearful thoughts, flashbacks and bad dreams. These symptoms can become problematic in a persons life. Some of the avoidance symptoms include difficulty remembering the traumatic event and avoiding reminders of the experience, such as places, people and objects. Hyperarousal symptoms may also arise, such as feeling tense, being startled easily and having trouble sleeping. While it is normal to experience some of these symptoms after a terrible event, symptoms lasting more than a few weeks may be signs of PTSD.
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What Risks Are Associated With Ptsd
Alcohol and drug use
Some people who live with PTSD use drugs or alcohol to help manage the symptoms.
Drug or alcohol misuse can make you more unwell, especially is it is excessive. It can make you more likely to try and harm yourself or take your own life.
You can find out more about Drugs, alcohol and mental health by clicking here.
Mental health conditions
Most people who live with PTSD will have at least 1 other mental health condition. The most common conditions are:
- substance use, and
- anxiety disorders.
Other mental health conditions have some of the same symptoms as PTSD. This may be why PTSD can sometimes be hard to diagnose.
If you think you may be experiencing PTSD, you can tell your healthcare professional. You can explain that youve been through a trauma, and you think your symptoms might be related to PTSD.
You can find out more about:
Sometimes PTSD symptoms can be long-lasting and can have a significant impact on day-to-day life. This can sometimes lead to suicidal thoughts.
You can find out more about Suicidal thoughts How to cope by clicking here.
There is a link between PTSD and psychosis. But it isnt known if psychosis is sometimes a symptom of PTSD. Or if it is a separate mental health condition, that can be developed alongside PTSD.
You can find out more about Psychosis by clicking here.
Physical health issues
You can find more information about:
Ptsd Symptoms & Signs
The symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder in adults may occur immediately after the event, or they can emerge at some time later. Many people tend to connect posttraumatic stress disorder in adults with flashbacks after a traumatic event, but theres more to PTSD than that. Certain situations may trigger your senses, and they can cause you to become stressed and hypervigilant. You may feel detached too. You may have constant negative thoughts about yourself or the trauma that occurred. It may be difficult to feel any positive emotions. Other mental disorders can also be concurrent with post-traumatic stress disorder. Even further, PTSD causes physical symptoms or physical sensations in many people, not just mental health problems.
Well-meaning family members and friends sometimes try to help by pressuring you to just get over it. They dont often understand that exposure to a traumatic event is a serious issue that often requires professional help. Sometimes, the family members are the reason for your PTSD symptoms, especially if you went through childhood abuse or have a family history of substance use.
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Cognition And Mood Symptoms
- Trouble remembering key features of the traumatic event
- Negative thoughts about oneself or the world
- Distorted thoughts about the event that cause feelings of blame
- Ongoing negative emotions, such as fear, anger, guilt, or shame
- Loss of interest in previous activities
- Feelings of social isolation
- Difficulty feeling positive emotions, such as happiness or satisfaction
Cognition and mood symptoms can begin or worsen after the traumatic event and can lead a person to feel detached from friends or family members.
Other Effects Of Ptsd
If you are experiencing symptoms of PTSD, you might also find that you have difficulty with some everyday aspects of your life, such as:
- looking after yourself
- remembering things and making decisions
- coping with change
- simply enjoying your leisure time.
If you drive you may have to tell the DVLA that you have PTSD. For more information on your right to drive, including when and how to contact the DVLA, see our legal pages on fitness to drive.
My behaviour changed and became erratic. I would alternate from wanting to shut myself away and not see or talk to anyone to going out to parties in the middle of the week and staying out late.
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Ways You Can Look After Yourself
The symptoms of PTSD can feel overwhelming. While its important to get professional help, there are things you can try for yourself too.
- Flashbacks can be very distressing. Grounding techniques can help bring you back to the present and feel more aware of your own body. For example, focus on breathing slowly and deeply, carry a small object to touch to comfort you, or describe what youre doing right now in great detail . Tell yourself youre having a flashback and that youre safe now. Get Self Help has more ways to cope with flashbacks.
- Learn ways to relax such as meditating or listening to music.
- Talk to someone you trust. You dont have to talk about the trauma if you dont want to, but you could share how youre feeling right now. PTSD can make it hard to trust and open up to people, so take your time.
- Understand what triggers your flashbacks or other symptoms. This could be places, people, sounds, phrases or smells, for example. Being prepared can help you use self-care tips to look after yourself.
- Look after your physical health. For example, try to eat well, keep physically active and get help with any sleep problems. PTSD can be exhausting so it can be hard to take care of yourself, but feeling better physically will help you feel better emotionally.
PTSD UK has more tips on coping with hypervigilance .
Next Steps For Ptsd Research
In the last decade, progress in research on the mental and biological foundations of PTSD has lead scientists to focus on better understanding the underlying causes of why people experience a range of reactions to trauma.
- NIMH-funded researchers are exploring trauma patients in acute care settings to better understand the changes that occur in individuals whose symptoms improve naturally.
- Other research is looking at how fear memories are affected by learning, changes in the body, or even sleep.
- Research on preventing the development of PTSD soon after trauma exposure is also under way.
- Other research is attempting to identify what factors determine whether someone with PTSD will respond well to one type of intervention or another, aiming to develop more personalized, effective, and efficient treatments.
- As gene research and brain imaging technologies continue to improve, scientists are more likely to be able to pinpoint when and where in the brain PTSD begins. This understanding may then lead to better targeted treatments to suit each persons own needs or even prevent the disorder before it causes harm.
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Do Children React Differently Than Adults
Children and teens can have extreme reactions to trauma, but some of their symptoms may not be the same as adults. Symptoms sometimes seen in very young children , these symptoms can include:
- Wetting the bed after having learned to use the toilet
- Forgetting how to or being unable to talk
- Acting out the scary event during playtime
- Being unusually clingy with a parent or other adult
Older children and teens are more likely to show symptoms similar to those seen in adults. They may also develop disruptive, disrespectful, or destructive behaviors. Older children and teens may feel guilty for not preventing injury or deaths. They may also have thoughts of revenge.
How Does Ptsd Affect Your Life
PTSD can lead to other issues with your health and life, such as:
- Problems at work and in your personal relationships.
Children with PTSD may:
- Act out the traumatic event when playing.
- Cling to a parent or other adult.
- Forget how to talk, or at least seem to.
- Wet the bed even if they know how to use the toilet.
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Further Resources And Information
The Birth Trauma Association helps people who have been traumatised by childbirth.
Cruse Bereavement Care provides information and support to anyone who has been bereaved. They have information about traumatic bereavement.
Disaster Action supports people affected by major disasters.
PTSD Resolution provides counselling to veterans, reservists and their families.
PTSD UK provides support and information to anyone experiencing PTSD.
Rape Crisis supports women and girls who have been sexually abused or raped. They also signpost to help for men and boys.
Victim Support helps people affected by crime. They offer emotional and practical support, no matter how long ago the crime happened.
You May Get Icy Hands And Feet
During the fight/flight/freeze period your blood flow is redirected away from your extremities and towards your larger organs in your torso necessary for your body to protect the heart and other organs essential to your survival. This redirection can result in poor blood flow to your hands and feet, and cause them to feel cold. One PTSD sufferer who noticed this too said, At times, my toes would be white they looked close to falling off there was almost no blood in them at all.
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