What Is Bipolar Disorder And How Does It Affect Children
Bipolar disorder is a mental illness that causes children to be very irritable and have significant swings in mood. Bipolar disorder was previously called manic-depressive disorder.
Children with this illness experience unusual mood changes, moving from feeling very happy and joyful to feeling deeply sad. Other children experience chronic irritability, sometimes accompanied by mood shifts. Additional symptoms include grandiose behavior, pressured speech, racing thoughts, decreased need for sleep, risky behavior and hypersexuality.
If the illness goes untreated, school, relationships and daily life may become difficult. Youth with bipolar disorder are also at increased risk for suicide and/or delinquent behavior with incarceration.
Its important to note that even if you see some of these symptoms in your child, the diagnosis isnt necessarily bipolar disorder. There is some disagreement in the childrens mental health field over how symptoms differ between children and adults, and when bipolar disorder should be diagnosed. A mental health professional can help you identify the problem.
Access To Unapproved Drugs
Governments worldwide have created provisions for granting access to drugs prior to approval for patients who have exhausted all alternative treatment options and do not match clinical trial entry criteria. Often grouped under the labels of compassionate use, , or named patient supply, these programs are governed by rules which vary by country defining access criteria, data collection, promotion, and control of drug distribution.
Within the United States, pre-approval demand is generally met through applications , or single-patient INDs. These mechanisms, which fall under the label of expanded access programs, provide access to drugs for groups of patients or individuals residing in the US. Outside the US, Named Patient Programs provide controlled, pre-approval access to drugs in response to requests by physicians on behalf of specific, or “named”, patients before those medicines are licensed in the patient’s home country. Through these programs, patients are able to access drugs in late-stage clinical trials or approved in other countries for a genuine, unmet medical need, before those drugs have been licensed in the patient’s home country.
The was established in November 2001 by Frank Burroughs in memory of his daughter, Abigail. The Alliance seeks broader availability of investigational drugs on behalf of terminally ill patients.
In 2013, was at the center of a high-profile debate regarding expanded access of cancer patients to experimental drugs.
What Causes Bipolar Disorder
Experts do not know what causes bipolar disorder. Some possible causes include:
- Biology. The way the brain is shaped and how it functions may be different in people with bipolar disorder.
- Chemistry. In people with bipolar disorder, levels of brain chemicals may not be balanced correctly. These chemicals usually help regulate thoughts, moods, and behaviors so that a person does not feel so high or low.
- Family history. Bipolar disorder is more common in people who have a sibling, parent, or child with the condition. Certain genes may be involved in causing bipolar disorder.
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Bipolar Disorder Vs Manic Depression
A critical point in distinguishing bipolar disorder from major depressive disorder is whether the person has had a manic episode. For someone to be diagnosed with bipolar disorder, they must have had a manic episode lasting for at least one week or a hypomanic episode lasting for at least four days.
What Causes Bipolar Disorder In Children
It is not yet known what causes bipolar disorder. However, there are several factors that may be associated with it:
- Family History: Children with a parent or sibling with bipolar disorder are more likely to get the illness. This is approximately five times more likely when a first degree relative has a bipolar disorder.
- Anxiety Disorder: Many children with bipolar disorder also experience significant anxiety.
- Neurotransmitters: Bipolar disorder is a disorder of brain development that likely involves differences in neurotransmitters, brain structures and/or the function of specific brain structures.
- Environment: Stress, loss of a loved one and/or abuse may trigger bipolar disorder. Both negative and positive stresses can serve as a contributing trigger to bipolar disorder symptoms.
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Proposed Human Exposome Project
The idea of a Human Exposome Project, analogous to the , has been proposed and discussed in numerous scientific meetings, but as of 2017, no such project exists. Given the lack of clarity on how science would go about pursuing such a project, support has been lacking. Reports on the issue include:
- a 2011 review on the exposome and by and Stephen Rappaport, “Exposure science and the exposome: an opportunity for coherence in the environmental health sciences” in the journal .
- a 2012 report from the “Exposure Science in the 21st Century: A Vision and A Strategy”, outlining the challenges in systematic evaluations of the exposome.
Mga Uri Ng Bipolar Disorder
BIPOLAR ko disorder
Disorder ako ng Bipolar;ay nailalarawan sa pamamagitan ng isang manic episode na sapat na malubhang upang maging sanhi ng minarkahang kapansanan sa pang-araw-araw na pag-andar o humahantong sa pag-ospital upang maiwasan ang pinsala sa sarili o sa iba. Maaaring mangyari din ang mga pangunahing nakakainis na mga yugto.
BIPOLAR II DISORDER
Disorder ng Bipolar II;ay nailalarawan sa pamamagitan ng isang pattern ng hypomanic at pangunahing mga nakaka-depress na yugto. Ang episode ng hypomanic ay nauugnay sa isang malinaw na pagbabago sa pang-araw-araw na pag-andar na uncharacteristic ng indibidwal.
Disorder ng Cyclothymic ;ay isang banayad na anyo ng sakit na bipolar. Ang Cyclothymic disorder ay nailalarawan sa pamamagitan ng hindi bababa sa 2 taon ng pana-panahong hypomanic at depressive na mga sintomas.
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Mendelian And Classical Genetics
Modern genetics started with Mendel’s studies of the nature of inheritance in plants. In his paper “Versuche Ã¼ber Pflanzenhybriden” , presented in 1865 to the Naturforschender Verein in , Mendel traced the inheritance patterns of certain traits in pea plants and described them mathematically. Although this pattern of inheritance could only be observed for a few traits, Mendel’s work suggested that heredity was particulate, not acquired, and that the inheritance patterns of many traits could be explained through simple rules and ratios.
The importance of Mendel’s work did not gain wide understanding until 1900, after his death, when and other scientists rediscovered his research. , a proponent of Mendel’s work, coined the word genetics in 1905 . Bateson both acted as a mentor and was aided significantly by the work of other scientists from Newnham College at Cambridge, specifically the work of , , and . Bateson popularized the usage of the word genetics to describe the study of inheritance in his inaugural address to the Third International Conference on Plant Hybridization in in 1906.
How Is Protein Connected
While bipolar disorder has been linked with a cellular protein called phospholipase C1 in the past, research from the Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology in South Korea may have uncovered the reason why.
Another protein called brain-derived neurotrophic factor regulates the activity of PLC1. Thus, when there is a PLC1 deficiency, there is also a BDNF deficiency. This is an important distinction because BDNF plays a key role in the formation of brain synapses, or the junctions between nerves.
When BDNF is limited, these synapses transmit an imbalance of excitatory and inhibitory messages to the brain. The result is the constant fluctuations between up and down moods that those with bipolar disorder face.
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Bipolar Disorder Risk Factors
When someone develops bipolar disorder, it usually starts when they’re in late adolescence or young adulthood. Rarely, it can happen earlier in childhood. Bipolar disorder can run in families.
Men and women are equally likely to get it. Women are somewhat more likely than men to go through “rapid cycling,” which is having four or more distinct mood episodes within a year. Women also tend to spend more time depressed than men with bipolar disorder.
Bipolar disorder usually develops later in life for women, and theyâre more likely to have bipolar disorder II and be affected by seasonal mood changes.
A combination of medical and mental issues is also more common in women. Those medical issues can include thyroid disease, migraine, and anxiety disorders.
Some things that make you more likely to have bipolar disorder include:
Having a family member with bipolar disorder
Going through a time of high stress or trauma
Drug or alcohol abuse
Certain health conditions
Many people with the condition abuse alcohol or other drugs when manic or depressed. People with bipolar disorder are more likely to have seasonal depression, co-existing anxiety disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Bipolar Disorder In Teens
Angst-filled behavior is nothing new to the average parent of a teenager. The shifts in hormones, plus the life changes that come with puberty, can make even the most well-behaved teen seem a little upset or overly emotional from time to time. However, some teenage changes in mood may be the result of a more serious condition, such as bipolar disorder.
A bipolar disorder diagnosis is most common during the late teens and early adult years. For teenagers, the more common symptoms of a manic episode include:
- being very happy
- taking part in risky behaviors
- abusing substances
- thinking about sex more than usual
- becoming overly sexual or sexually active
- having trouble sleeping but not showing signs of fatigue or being tired
- having a very short temper
- having trouble staying focused, or being easily distracted
For teenagers, the more common symptoms of a depressive episode include:
- sleeping a lot or too little
- eating too much or too little
- feeling very sad and showing little excitability
- withdrawing from activities and friends
- thinking about death and suicide
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How Are Mood Disorders Treated
Mood disorders can often be treated with success. Treatment may include:
Antidepressant and mood stabilizing medicinesespecially when combined with psychotherapy have shown to work very well in the treatment of depression
Psychotherapymost often cognitive-behavioral and/or interpersonal therapy. This therapy is focused on changing the persons distorted views of himself or herself and the environment around him or her. It also helps to improve interpersonal relationship skills, and identifying stressors in the environment and how to avoid them
Other therapies, such as electroconvulsive therapy and transcranial stimulation
Families play a vital supportive role in any treatment process.
When correctly diagnosed and treated, people with mood disorders can live, stable, productive, healthy lives.
Bipolar Disorder And Other Conditions
Some bipolar disorder symptoms are similar to those of other illnesses, which can make it challenging for a health care provider to make a diagnosis. In addition, many people may have bipolar disorder along with another mental disorder or condition, such as an anxiety disorder, substance use disorder, or an eating disorder. People with bipolar disorder have an increased chance of having thyroid disease, migraine headaches, heart disease, diabetes, obesity, and other physical illnesses.
Psychosis: Sometimes, a person with severe episodes of mania or depression may experience psychotic symptoms, such as hallucinations or delusions. The psychotic symptoms tend to match the persons extreme mood. For example:
- People having psychotic symptoms during a manic episode may have the unrealistic belief that they are famous, have a lot of money, or have special powers.
- People having psychotic symptoms during a depressive episode may falsely believe they are financially ruined and penniless, have committed a crime, or have an unrecognized serious illness.
As a result, people with bipolar disorder who also have psychotic symptoms are sometimes incorrectly diagnosed with schizophrenia. When people have symptoms of bipolar disorder and also experience periods of psychosis that are separate from mood episodes, the appropriate diagnosis may be schizoaffective disorder.
Anxiety: It is common for people with bipolar disorder to also have an anxiety disorder.
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For The Digestive System
A euthanaticum is used for and . Euthanasia is not permitted by law in many countries, and consequently, medicines will not be licensed for this use in those countries.
Administration is the process by which a patient takes a medicine. There are three major categories of drug administration; , , and other .
, the most common form of enteral administration, can be performed in various including , , or , and other routes likewise have various forms.
The drug may contain a single or multiple .
They can be administered all at once as a , at frequent intervals or continuously. Frequencies are often abbreviated from Latin, such as every 8 hours reading Q8H from Quaque VIII Hora.
In the fields of , and , drug discovery is the process by which new drugs are discovered.
Modern drug discovery involves the identification of screening hits, and optimization of those hits to increase the , , efficacy/, stability , and oral . Once a compound that fulfills all of these requirements has been identified, it will begin the process of prior to . One or more of these steps may, but not necessarily, involve .
is the process of bringing a new drug to the market once a has been identified through the process of . It includes pre-clinical research and and may include the step of obtaining regulatory approval to market the drug.
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In many jurisdictions are regulated.
Mga Sintomas Sa Katangian
Ang mga karamdamang bipolar ay nailalarawan sa mga pagbabago sa mood ng pagbibisikleta. Ang mga apektadong indibidwal ay humalili sa pagitan ng mga malubhang matataas at malubhang lows , madalas na may mga panahon ng normal na kalooban sa pagitan. Ang mga pagbabago sa mood ay maaaring maging mabilis ngunit madalas na nangyayari nang unti-unti.
A isang buhok episode ay isang natatanging panahon ng pagtaas ng enerhiya at abnormally ginustong, magagalitin, o euphoric na kalooban na naroroon para sa karamihan ng araw, halos araw-araw, nang hindi bababa sa isang linggo. Sa panahon ng yugto, tatlo o higit pa sa mga sumusunod na sintomas ay dapat ding naroroon: mas mataas kaysa sa karaniwang pagpapahalaga sa sarili, makabuluhang nabawasan ang pangangailangan para sa pagtulog, isang pagtaas ng pakikipag-usap, mga pag-iisip ng karera, pagkadismaya, pagdaragdag ng pag-uugali na nakatuon sa layunin, pag-uugali sa psychomotor, at labis na paglahok sa mga nakalulugod na aktibidad na mapanganib o mapanirang sa sarili. Ang hangal na pagnanasa, naiwan ng hindi ginamot, ay maaaring lumala sa isang psychotic state.
Mga EPISODONG HYPOMANIC
MAJOR DEPRESSIVE EPISOD
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Go To Couples Counseling
Couples counseling is essential for working through upset over a bipolar partners actions. Its common for someone with bipolar disorder to hurt and offend their partner. When someone is first diagnosed, there are often relationship issues that need to be addressed. Couples counseling can help you:
- Understand that theres an illness involved in the hurtful behavior.
- Forgive the behavior that happened during an altered mood state.
- Set boundaries with a partner about maintaining treatment.
Natural Selection And Evolution
Mutations alter an organism’s genotype and occasionally this causes different phenotypes to appear. Most mutations have little effect on an organism’s phenotype, health, or reproductive . Mutations that do have an effect are usually detrimental, but occasionally some can be beneficial. Studies in the fly suggest that if a mutation changes a protein produced by a gene, about 70 percent of these mutations will be harmful with the remainder being either neutral or weakly beneficial.
studies the distribution of genetic differences within populations and how these distributions change over time. Changes in the in a population are mainly influenced by , where a given allele provides a selective or reproductive advantage to the organism, as well as other factors such as , , , and .
Over many generations, the genomes of organisms can change significantly, resulting in . In the process called , selection for beneficial mutations can cause a species to evolve into forms better able to survive in their environment. New species are formed through the process of , often caused by geographical separations that prevent populations from exchanging genes with each other.
Organisms were chosen, in part, for convenienceâshort generation times and easy made some organisms popular genetics research tools. Widely used model organisms include the gut bacterium , the plant , baker’s yeast , the nematode , the common fruit fly , and the common house mouse .
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How Does Pregnancy Affect Bipolar Disorder
Women who have bipolar disorder are at risk for experiencing an episode after giving birth, especially a depressive episode. Women who experience a depressive or manic episode after giving birth are also more likely to have episodes after other pregnancies. Women with bipolar disorder are at high risk of developing ,;which is a medical emergency.
Talk to your doctor or nurse if you are trying to get pregnant or are pregnant. Some medicines are not safe to take during pregnancy.
Bipolar Relationships: What To Expect
Ups and downs are natural in any romantic relationship, but when your partner has bipolar disorder it can feel like youre on an emotional rollercoaster. Not knowing what to expect each day is stressful and tiring. Over time, it wears on the relationship.
Understanding why your partner acts out sometimes or becomes withdrawn is the first supportive step you can take in strengthening your relationship. Learn exactly what a bipolar diagnosis means, how it could affect your partners behavior and what you can do to foster a healthy, stable relationship.
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Can I Take Medicine For Bipolar Disorder While Breastfeeding
Yes. Certain medicines to treat bipolar disorder are safe to take while breastfeeding. Talk to your doctor about what medicines you can take after giving birth.
Learn more about medicines and breastfeeding in our; section. You can also enter your medicine into the;LactMed® database;to find out whether your medicine passes through your breastmilk and, if so, any possible side effects for your nursing baby.