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What Kind Of Mental Disorder Is Schizophrenia

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The 4 Most Common Types Of Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment & pathology

Its safe to conclude at this point that schizophrenia is a complex disease. Living with schizophrenia isnt easy, but understanding more about the disorder and its many ramifications can help you deal with your own issues or help a loved one who is struggling. Here is some valuable information about the four most common types of schizophrenia to get you started.

1. Paranoid Schizophrenia

Paranoid schizophrenia is the most common manifestation of the disorder. According to the International Classification of Diseases, its most prominent symptom is constituted by hallucinations and delusions. Due to the paranoid aspect, these usually consist of unusual feelings of being watched, followed or even hunted down.

Unlike the other common types, paranoid schizophrenia can also develop at a later age, while others usually start to show in early childhood. This was the case of Nobel prize laureate mathematician John Forbes Nash Jr., whose struggle with this particular illness has been documented in the biographic film A Beautiful Mind.

2. Catatonic Schizophrenia

Although its rarer than other types of schizophrenia, catatonic behavior is still widely exhibited by schizophrenics, as well as people who suffer from other mental conditions, such as depression or bipolar disorder. Catatonia implies falling into behavioral extremes, much like manic and depressive episodes.

3. Disorganized Schizophrenia

4. Undifferentiated Schizophrenia

Family Education And Support

Educational programs for family members, significant others, and friends offer instruction about schizophrenia symptoms and treatments, and strategies for assisting the person with the illness. Increasing key supporters understanding of psychotic symptoms, treatment options, and the course of recovery can lessen their distress, bolster coping and empowerment, and strengthen their capacity to offer effective assistance. Family-based services may be provided on an individual basis or through multi-family workshops and support groups. For more information about family-based services in your area, you can visit the family education and support groups page on the National Alliance on Mental Illness website.

What Are The Downsides

Because you have to go to a doctor or hospital to get the shots, it’s not as quick and simple as taking a pill at home. You’ll need to make time for these appointments, and make sure you can get there and back safely. And like with any injection, you may feel some pain or soreness during or after each shot.

A serious side effect called post-injection delirium sedation syndrome affects less than 1% of people after taking olanzapine pamoate , a long-acting medicine. It can cause dizziness, confusion, and movements you can’t control, and it usually happens within an hour of getting a shot. Because of this small risk, you’ll need to stay at your doctor’s office for at least 3 hours after your shot so you can be watched for side effects.

Antipsychotic medicines can also make you sleepy or dizzy, and they can cause skin rashes, rapid heartbeat, blurred vision, and muscle shakiness or stiffness. Some can also make you gain weight and put you at risk for diabetes or high cholesterol.

These side effects can happen whether you take the daily pill or the shot. The difference is that the long-acting type takes more time to leave your body. Your doctor can stop or change the dosage of daily medicine that’s causing a bad reaction, but you’ll have to wait weeks for a long-lasting drug to run its course.

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At What Age Is Schizophrenia Diagnosed

Schizophrenia usually develops after puberty, with most people being diagnosed with schizophrenia in their late teens to early 30s. The typical age of onset and diagnosis also varies between males and females. Males are more likely to be diagnosed in their late teens to early 20s, while females are more likely to be diagnosed in their late 20s to early 30s.

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Are People With Schizophrenia Dangerous

What Are the Different Types of Schizophrenia?

Popular books and movies often depict people with schizophrenia and other mental illnesses as dangerous and violent. This usually isnât true. Most people with schizophrenia are not violent. More typically, they prefer to withdraw and be left alone. When people with mental illness do take part in dangerous or violent behaviors, itâs generally a result of their psychosis and the fear that theyâre being threatened in some way by their surroundings. Drug or alcohol use can make it worse.

On the other hand, people with schizophrenia can be a danger to themselves. Suicide is the top cause of premature death among people with schizophrenia.

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What Are The Advantages

Anyone who has to take a daily pill knows that it can be tough to stay on schedule. But people with schizophrenia and other serious forms of mental illness have extra challenges.

They sometimes don’t think they are sick, especially in the early stages of their disease. They may hear voices that persuade them not to take medication. If they do take it, they might stop as soon as their symptoms go away.

In several studies, only 40% to 60% of people with schizophrenia stay on track with their daily meds.

Long-acting drugs solve the problem of having to take medicine every day. And because a health care professional has to give you the shot, it’s easier for your doctor to know whether you’re keeping up with your treatment.

Generally, long-lasting drugs are recommended for people whose symptoms get better with pills or liquid meds, but who have trouble taking them every day. So they’re often not prescribed until someone has had schizophrenia for several years.

But a study from UCLA suggests that people who recently found out they have schizophrenia can benefit from long-acting drugs, too. In that study, those who got shots every two weeks were more likely to stick with their treatment plan than people who were prescribed daily pills. Very few of the people who got the shots — just 5% — had their symptoms come back, compared with 33% in the pill group.

How Do Doctors Diagnose The Type Of Schizophrenia

If the patient is admitted, the psychiatrist talks to them and evaluates their behavior, considers whether any symptoms were triggered by alcohol or drugs, reviews any records from prior admissions, and talks to the family.

Initially, we may only see that the patient is losing track of reality, says Dr. Bowers. We may need more time to see all the symptoms of schizophrenia. These symptoms include:

  • Fixed, false beliefs.
  • Seeing visions or shadows.
  • Suspicion and distrust.

Government regulations require psychiatrists to diagnose a specific type of schizophrenia so that insurance companies get the green light to pay for care.

We hope to see enough symptoms during a three-, five- or 10-day hospital stay to clarify the type of schizophrenia, she says. But we may not see all of them, so the initial diagnosis may not be exactly right.

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Diagnostic Criteria For Each Type Of Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia types are diagnosed based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders . The DSM-IV-TR criteria for each form of schizophrenia is as follows:4

  • Paranoid type schizophrenia
  • Contains: preoccupation with delusions and frequent auditory hallucinations
  • Is not prominent: disorganized speech disorganized or catatonic behavior flat or inappropriate affect
  • Disorganized type schizophrenia
  • Contains: disorganized speech and behavior and flat or inappropriate affect
  • Is not prominent: delusions and hallucinations
  • Catatonic type schizophrenia
  • Contains two of the following: muscle immobility or stupor excessive, pointless muscle activity extreme negativism inappropriate or bizarre postures repetition of movement or speech
  • Undifferentiated type schizophrenia
  • Contains the diagnosis of schizophrenia but does not specifically meet one of the above three subtype criteria
  • Residual type schizophrenia
  • Contains: evidence of schizophrenia
  • Is not prominent: delusions hallucinations disorganized speech grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior
  • If a person exhibits the symptoms for more than one type of schizophrenia, the most prominent symptoms dictate the type.

    What Is The Cause Of Schizophrenia

    Schizophrenia Overview | Clinical Presentation

    The cause is not known for certain but there are several current ideas. It is thought that the balance of brain chemicals is altered. Neurotransmitters are needed to pass messages between brain cells. An altered balance of these may cause the symptoms. It is not clear why changes occur in the neurotransmitters.

    Inherited factors are thought to be important. For example, a close family member of someone with schizophrenia has a 1 in 10 chance of also developing the condition. This is 10 times the normal chance. A child born to a mother and father who both have schizophrenia has a higher risk of developing it but one or more factors appear to be needed to trigger the condition in people who are genetically prone to it. There are various theories as to what these might be. For example:

    • Stress such as relationship problems, financial difficulties, social isolation, bereavement, etc.
    • A viral infection during the mother’s pregnancy, or in early childhood.
    • A lack of oxygen at the time of birth that may damage a part of the brain.
    • Illegal or street drugs may trigger the condition in some people. For example, heavy cannabis usage may account for between 8% and 14% of schizophrenia cases. Many other recreational drugs such as amfetamines, cocaine, ketamine and lysergic acid diethylamide can trigger a schizophrenia-like illness.

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    What Are The Various Types Of Disorders

    Recap

    What is the hardest mental disorder to deal with? Borderline character problem commonly accompanies various other mental disorders. These co-occurring disorders can make it tougher to identify and also deal with borderline character problem, specifically if signs of various other diseases overlap with the signs of borderline character problem.

    What Is The Outlook

    • In most cases there are recurring episodes of symptoms . Most people in this group live relatively independently with varying amounts of support. The frequency and duration of each relapse can vary. Some people recover completely between relapses. Some people improve between relapses but never quite fully recover. Treatment often prevents relapses, or limits their number and severity.
    • In some cases, there is only one episode of symptoms that lasts a few weeks or so. This is followed by a complete recovery, or substantial improvement without any further relapses. It is difficult to give an exact figure as to how often this occurs. Perhaps 2 in 10 cases or fewer.
    • Up to 2 in 10 people with schizophrenia are not helped much by treatment and need long-term dependent care. For some, this is in secure accommodation.
    • Depression is a common complication of schizophrenia.
    • It is thought that up to a third of people with schizophrenia misuse alcohol and/or illegal drugs. Helping or treating such people can be difficult.
    • About 1 in 10 people with schizophrenia end their own life.

    The outlook is thought to be better if:

    Newer medicines and better psychological treatments give hope that the outlook is improving.

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    What Risks And Complications Can Schizophrenia Cause

    Physical health

    Research suggests that people with serious mental illness , such as schizophrenia, have a shorter life expectancy. People with mental illness may die 15 to 20 years earlier than the general population. This may because people who live with SMI are at higher risk of having a range of health issues. Such as being overweight, having heart disease, smoking and diabetes.

    Because of these issues, NICE recommends that when you start taking antipsychotic medication, your doctor should do a full range of physical health checks. This should include weight, blood pressure and other blood tests. These checks should be repeated regularly.

    Mental health professionals are responsible for doing these checks for the first year of treatment. Responsibility may then pass to your GP. Your doctor or mental health team should offer you a programme which combines healthy eating and physical health checks. You should be supported by a healthcare professional to help stop smoking.

    Suicide

    The risk of suicide is increased for people with schizophrenia. Research indicates that around 513% of people who live with with schizophrenia die by suicide.

    Research has found that the increased risk is not usually because of positive symptoms. The risk of suicide is associated more to affective symptoms, such as low mood.

    Key risk factors for suicide include:

    • previous suicide attempts,

    What Are The Types Of Schizophrenia

    Top 10 Schizophrenia Facts

    There are different types of schizophrenia. The International Classification of Diseases manual describes them as below.

    Paranoid schizophrenia

    • Pranks, giggling and health complaints.
    • Usually diagnosed in adolescents or young adults.

    Catatonic schizophrenia

    • Unusual movements, often switching between being very active and very still.
    • You may not talk at all.

    Simple schizophrenia

    • Negative symptoms are prominent early and get worse quickly.
    • Positive symptoms are rare.

    Undifferentiated schizophrenia

    Your diagnosis may have some signs of paranoid, hebephrenic or catatonic schizophrenia, but doesnt obviously fit into one of these types alone.

    Residual schizophrenia

    This type of schizophrenia is diagnosed in the later stages of schizophrenia. You may be diagnosed with this if you have a history of schizophrenia but only continue to experience negative symptoms.

    Other schizophrenia

    There are other types of schizophrenia according to the ICD-10, such as.

    • Cenesthopathic schizophrenia. This is where people experience unusual bodily sensations.
    • Schizophreniform. Schizophreniform disorder is a type of psychotic illness with symptoms similar to those of schizophrenia. But symptoms last for a short period.

    Unspecified schizophrenia

    Symptoms meet the general conditions for a diagnosis, but do not fit in to any of the above categories.

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    Negative Symptoms Of Schizophrenia

    The word “negative” here doesnât mean “bad.” It notes the absence of normal behaviors in people with schizophrenia. Negative symptoms of schizophrenia include:

    • Lack of emotion or a limited range of emotions
    • Withdrawal from family, friends, and social activities
    • Less energy
    • Loss of pleasure or interest in life
    • Poor hygiene and grooming habits

    What Happens At The Hospital

    About one-third of people with schizophrenia dont believe anything is wrong with them. Many more dont seek help on their own, for cultural reasons or because they lack resources.

    So problems often come to light only when their erratic behavior or other troubles trigger a crisis. Patients are often brought to the hospital by family, teachers or the police, says Dr. Bowers.

    To decide whether to admit someone, psychiatrists consider whether patients pose a risk to themselves or others whether they can take care of themselves and whether they could benefit from hospital treatment.

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    The Types Of Schizophrenia According To Dsm

    Today, DSM-5 is the standard manual for diagnosing mental disorders. This tool included numerous changes compared to previous editions in regard to the types of schizophrenia.

    According to a study by Revista Iberoamericana de Psicosomática, the elimination of these subtypes is the main change. They now seek to determine the symptom that predominates at the beginning of the disease though.

    Thus, instead of listing types of schizophrenia, they clarify course specifiers. They do it this way so the psychologist or psychiatrist can more easily evaluate and treat a patient with this condition.

    09 October, 2020

    Different Types Of Schizophrenia

    The 4 main types of Schizophrenia

    The symptoms that people experience during schizophrenia can vary depending on the subtype of the illness. There are 5 types of schizophrenia as recognized by the DSM and although many have similar general symptoms, there are various features that can distinguish one subtype from the others. A diagnosis of schizophrenia is made in accordance to the most significant and/or dominant symptoms that a person experiences.

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    How Is The Diagnosis Made

    Some of the symptoms that occur in schizophrenia also occur in other mental health conditions such as depression, mania, and dissociative identity disorder, or after taking some street drugs. Therefore, the diagnosis may not be clear at first. As a rule, the symptoms need to be present for several weeks before a doctor will make a firm diagnosis of schizophrenia.

    Not all symptoms are present in all cases. Different forms of schizophrenia occur depending upon the main symptoms that develop. For example, people with paranoid schizophrenia mainly have positive symptoms which include delusions that people are trying to harm them. In contrast, some people mainly have negative symptoms and this is classed as simple schizophrenia. In many cases there is a mix of positive and negative symptoms.

    Sometimes symptoms develop quickly over a few weeks or so. Family and friends may recognise that the person has a mental health problem. Sometimes symptoms develop slowly over months and the person may gradually become withdrawn, lose friends, jobs, etc, before the condition is recognised.

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    Mental Wellness

    • Information & & Characteristic.
    • Locate a Psychoanalyst.

    What is one of the most unsafe mental illness? The searchings for reveal anorexia nervosa to be one of the most lethal psychological medical diagnosis. The anorexia nervosa death price of 5.86 is considerably greater than: Schizophrenia, which enhances fatality danger 2.8-fold in men and also 2.5-fold in ladies.

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    Continue Learning About Mental Disorders

    Important: This content reflects information from various individuals and organizations and may offer alternative or opposing points of view. It should not be used for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. As always, you should consult with your healthcare provider about your specific health needs.

    Here Are Some Things You Can Do To Help Your Loved One:

    What is Schizophrenia: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and ...
    • Help them get treatment and encourage them to stay in treatment
    • Remember that their beliefs or hallucinations seem very real to them
    • Tell them that you acknowledge that everyone has the right to see things their way
    • Be respectful, supportive, and kind without tolerating dangerous or inappropriate behavior
    • Check to see if there are any support groups in your area

    Some symptoms require immediate emergency care. If your loved one is thinking about harming themselves or others or attempting suicide, seek help right away:

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