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What Are The 5 Types Of Schizophrenia

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What Is Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorder

Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorder Diagnosis with DSM5-TR Changes

Schizophrenia spectrum disorder is categorized as a psychotic disorder. Psychotic disorders are mental illnesses that interfere with a persons ability to accurately perceive and respond to reality. People with psychotic disorders are unable to differentiate reality from delusions and hallucinations when theyre experiencing symptoms of psychosis.1,3

Schizophrenia is a rare but debilitating chronic mental illness. Less than 1% of the US population will develop schizophrenia in their lifetime, and most who do are older teens or younger adults. Many experts believe that only people who have a genetic or neurological predisposition can develop schizophrenia, and that certain environmental factors or choices can heighten the risk for those individuals, such as use of illicit substances.2,3,4

Schizophrenia is chronic in nature, meaning that the symptoms of schizophrenia can be managed with medication and treatment, but cannot be cured. Most people with schizophrenia will experience periodic active phases of psychosis where their thoughts are disorganized or delusional. When they remain in treatment and on their medications, these active phases tend to be shorter, less frequent, and less intense.2,3,4

Types Of Schizophrenia In The Dsm Iv

The five distinct types of schizophrenia included in the DSM IV were used by clinicians to diagnose someone, based on the symptoms the person presented with.2 Since 2013, these criteria have been replaced by schizophrenia spectrum disorder in the DSM 5.

The five types of schizophrenia that used to be diagnosed include:2

Conditions Related To Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is the most well-known condition of its type, but a range of conditions involve psychosis and other schizophrenia-like symptoms.

The DSM-5-TR lists schizophrenia alongside several other conditions that it groups under schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders. These conditions include:

  • Schizotypal personality disorder: This involves discomfort in close relationships, disturbances in cognition or perceptions, and eccentric behavior.
  • Delusional disorder: This involves the person having delusions for 1 month but no other psychotic symptoms.
  • Brief psychotic disorder: This occurs when symptoms of psychosis last for longer than a day but less than a month.
  • Schizophreniform disorder: This occurs when symptoms of schizophrenia last for less than 6 months.
  • Schizoaffective disorder: This mainly involves symptoms of schizophrenia, but a person may also have significant mood symptoms, such as mania or depression.
  • Substance- or medication-induced psychotic disorder: Psychotic symptoms can arise from the use of alcohol, cannabis, hallucinogen, or sedatives. They may also appear after taking certain medications, such as anesthetics, anticonvulsants, heart medications, chemotherapy drugs, or antidepressants.
  • Psychotic disorder due to another medical condition: There are various possible causes of psychosis, including untreated endocrine, metabolic, or autoimmune conditions and temporal lobe epilepsy.

more likely to die early than the general population.

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What Myths Are There About Schizophrenia

There are some myths or mistaken beliefs about schizophrenia which come from the media. For example,

  • Schizophrenia means someone has a split personality

This is not the case. The mistake may come from the fact that the name ‘schizophrenia’ comes from two Greek words meaning ‘split’ and ‘mind’.

  • People who live with schizophrenia are dangerous

Those who live with schizophrenia arent usually dangerous. People who live with schizophrenia are far more likely to be harmed by other people than harm others.

There is a higher risk of violent behaviour from those who live with schizophrenia. But, as with people who dont live with schizophrenia, much of the risk is linked to the use of street drugs or alcohol.

Sometimes people who live with schizophrenia commit violent crimes. The media often report them in a way which emphasises the persons mental health diagnosis. This can create fear and stigma in the general public. But it should be remembered that:

  • violent crimes are also committed by people who dont live with schizophrenia,
  • its often later found that the person was failed or neglected by the mental health system, and
  • the crime might have been prevented if the person had received the care and support they needed.

So, its not right to say that schizophrenia equals dangerous.

How Is Schizophrenia Treated

5 Types Of Schizophrenia

With early diagnosis, proper treatment and psychosocial therapy, most people with schizophrenia can lead productive and fulfilling lives. Treatment for schizophrenia may include

  • Medication: Medications dont cure schizophrenia, but they can help relieve the most troubling symptoms. Medications include:
  • Older antipsychotics such as chlorpromazine , haloperidol , etc.
  • Newer antipsychotics such as risperidone , iloperidone , clozapine , etc. Clozapine is used to treat schizophrenia that is resistant to other treatments.
  • Psychosocial therapy: Psychosocial therapy can help with behavioral, social and occupational problems.
  • Hospitalization: Hospitalization may be indicated in patients with the following
  • Severe symptoms
  • Suicidal tendencies
  • Inability to care for themselves
  • Electroconvulsive therapy : Electrodes are attached to the patient’s scalp and small electric shocks are administered to the brain under anesthesia. ECT may help when medications are no longer effective.
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    What Are The Types Of Schizophrenia

    There are different types of schizophrenia. The International Classification of Diseases manual describes them as below.

    Paranoid schizophrenia

    • Pranks, giggling and health complaints.
    • Usually diagnosed in adolescents or young adults.

    Catatonic schizophrenia

    • Unusual movements, often switching between being very active and very still.
    • You may not talk at all.

    Simple schizophrenia

    • Negative symptoms are prominent early and get worse quickly.
    • Positive symptoms are rare.

    Undifferentiated schizophrenia

    Your diagnosis may have some signs of paranoid, hebephrenic or catatonic schizophrenia, but doesnt obviously fit into one of these types alone.

    Residual schizophrenia

    This type of schizophrenia is diagnosed in the later stages of schizophrenia. You may be diagnosed with this if you have a history of schizophrenia but only continue to experience negative symptoms.

    Other schizophrenia

    There are other types of schizophrenia according to the ICD-10, such as.

    • Cenesthopathic schizophrenia. This is where people experience unusual bodily sensations.
    • Schizophreniform. Schizophreniform disorder is a type of psychotic illness with symptoms similar to those of schizophrenia. But symptoms last for a short period.

    Unspecified schizophrenia

    Symptoms meet the general conditions for a diagnosis, but do not fit in to any of the above categories.

    How Do Doctors Diagnose The Type Of Schizophrenia

    About one-third of people with schizophrenia dont believe anything is wrong with them. Many more dont seek help on their own, for cultural reasons or because they lack resources.

    So, problems often come to light only when their erratic behavior or other troubles trigger a crisis.

    People are often brought to the hospital by family, paramedics or the police, says Dr. Barnett. Without such intervention, many of these individuals would not receive care.

    To decide whether to admit someone to the hospital, psychiatrists consider the following:

    • If they pose a risk to themselves or others.
    • If they can take care of themselves.
    • If they could benefit from hospital treatment.

    To diagnose someone, a psychiatrist will talk to them and evaluate their behavior. Theyll also consider whether any symptoms were triggered by alcohol or drugs, review any records from prior admissions and talk to the family.

    A psychiatrist may also order laboratory tests to rule out nonpsychiatric conditions like lupus, which can cause psychotic symptoms.

    Initially, we may only see that the individual is losing track of reality, says Dr. Barnett. Given the number of potential causes of that symptom, we often need time to rule out medical diagnoses and ensure that other psychiatric diagnoses besides schizophrenia arent responsible.

    A five- to 10-day hospital stay can usually clarify the type of schizophrenia spectrum disorder.

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    What Are The Symptoms Of Schizophrenia And How Is It Diagnosed

    How is schizophrenia diagnosed?

    Only a psychiatrist can diagnose you with schizophrenia after a full psychiatric assessment. You may have to see the psychiatrist a few times before they diagnose you. This is because they need to see how often you are experiencing symptoms.

    There are currently no blood tests or scans that can prove if you have schizophrenia. So, psychiatrists use manuals to diagnose schizophrenia and other mental illnesses.

    The 2 main manuals used by medical professionals are the:

    • International Classification of Diseases which is produced by the World Health Organisation , or
    • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual which is produced by the American Psychiatric Association .

    NHS doctors use the ICD-10.

    The manuals explain which symptoms should be present, and for how long for you to receive a diagnosis. For example, according to the NHS you need to be hearing voices for at least 1 month before you can be diagnosed. Mental health professionals may say you have psychosis before they diagnose you with schizophrenia.

    What is the future of diagnosis in schizophrenia?There are many research studies being conducted across the world on how to better diagnose schizophrenia. For example, a recent study found through looking at images of the brain, there may be different sub-types of schizophrenia.

    What are the symptoms of schizophrenia?

    The symptoms of schizophrenia are commonly described as positive symptoms or negative symptoms. This doesnt mean that they are good or bad.

    What Are The Different Subtypes Of Schizophrenia

    Schizophrenia – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment & pathology

    Schizophrenia is a devastating mental disorder that can cause drastically different symptoms in those afflicted. Depending on the individual, symptoms can range from mild to extreme, from antisocial behavior to psychotic episodes. Since there is such a wide range of experiences with the same disorder, there are five different subtypes of schizophrenia. Below you can find the five most common subtypes of schizophrenia.

    Schizophrenia is a devastating mental disorder that can cause drastically different symptoms in those afflicted. Depending on the individual, symptoms can range from mild to extreme, from antisocial behavior to psychotic episodes. Since there is such a wide range of experiences with the same disorder, there are five different subtypes of schizophrenia. Below you can find the five most common subtypes of schizophrenia.

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    Reclaim Your Life From Different Types Of Schizophrenia

    Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness that affects how a person thinks, feels, and behaves. This should not be taken lightly. We Level Up California can provide you, or someone you love, treatment with professional and safe care. Feel free to call us to speak with one of our counselors. We can inform you about this condition by giving you relevant information about the different types of schizophrenia. Our specialists know what you are going through. Please know that each call is private and confidential.

    Is It Possible To Recover From Schizophrenia

    Many people who live with schizophrenia have recovery journeys that lead them to live meaningful lives.

    Recovery can be thought of in terms of:

    • clinical recovery, and
    • personal recovery.

    What is clinical recovery?

    Your doctor might have talked to you about recovery. Some doctors and health professionals think of recovery as:

    • no longer having mental illness symptoms, or
    • where your symptoms are controlled by treatment to such a degree that they are not significantly a problem.

    Sometimes this is called clinical recovery.

    Everyones experience of clinical recovery is different.

    • Some people completely recover from schizophrenia and go on to be symptom free.
    • Some who live with schizophrenia can improve a great deal with ongoing treatment.
    • Some improve with treatment but need ongoing support from mental health and social services.

    What is personal recovery?

    Dealing with symptoms is important to a lot of people. But some people think that recovery is wider than this. We call this personal recovery.

    Personal recovery means that you can live a meaningful life.

    What you think of as being a meaningful life might be different to how other people see it. You can think about what you would like to do to live a meaningful life and work towards that goal.

    Below are some ways you can think of recovery.

    What can help me recover?

    You may want to think about the following questions.

    The following things can be important in recovery.

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    Early Warning Signs Of Schizophrenia

    Top 10 Schizophrenia Facts

    In some people, schizophrenia appears suddenly and without warning. But for most, it comes on slowly, with subtle warning signs and a gradual decline in functioning, long before the first severe episode. Often, friends or family members will know early on that something is wrong, without knowing exactly what.

    In this early phase of schizophrenia, you may seem eccentric, unmotivated, emotionless, and reclusive to others. You may start to isolate yourself, begin neglecting your appearance, say peculiar things, and show a general indifference to life. You may abandon hobbies and activities, and your performance at work or school can deteriorate.

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    Positive And Negative Symptoms

    The symptoms of schizophrenia are usually classified into:

    • positive symptoms any change in behaviour or thoughts, such as hallucinations or delusions
    • negative symptoms where people appear to withdraw from the world around then, take no interest in everyday social interactions, and often appear emotionless and flat

    What Are The 5 Types Of Schizophrenia

    The five types of schizophrenia are:

    Definitions of each type are included below:

    Paranoid schizophrenia is one of the prevalent forms of schizophrenia and is characterized by symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and behavioral problems.

    Hebephrenic schizophrenia is characterized by symptoms such as disorganized behavior and speech. Patients exhibit slow movements, difficulty making decisions, forgetfulness, and will often write excessive incomprehensible content. However, Hebephrenic patients don’t have hallucinations or delusions.

    Persons with undifferentiated schizophrenia display symptoms of catatonia, hallucinations, delusions, and disorganized speech.

    Catatonic schizophrenia is a subtype of schizophrenia evident in various psychiatric and general medical conditions. Its symptoms include mimicking behavior, autism, and patients remaining in a fixed position for a long time.

    Residual schizophrenia symptoms include lack of emotion, withdrawal, and isolation from friends and family, fatigue, lack of motivation, loss of pleasure and interest in life, poor hygiene, and grooming habits.

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    What Risks And Complications Can Schizophrenia Cause

    Physical health

    Research suggests that people with serious mental illness , such as schizophrenia, have a shorter life expectancy. People with mental illness may die 15 to 20 years earlier than the general population. This may because people who live with SMI are at higher risk of having a range of health issues. Such as being overweight, having heart disease, smoking and diabetes.

    Because of these issues, NICE recommends that when you start taking antipsychotic medication, your doctor should do a full range of physical health checks. This should include weight, blood pressure and other blood tests. These checks should be repeated regularly.

    Mental health professionals are responsible for doing these checks for the first year of treatment. Responsibility may then pass to your GP. Your doctor or mental health team should offer you a programme which combines healthy eating and physical health checks. You should be supported by a healthcare professional to help stop smoking.

    Suicide

    The risk of suicide is increased for people with schizophrenia. Research indicates that around 513% of people who live with with schizophrenia die by suicide.

    Research has found that the increased risk is not usually because of positive symptoms. The risk of suicide is associated more to affective symptoms, such as low mood.

    Key risk factors for suicide include:

    • previous suicide attempts,

    What Is The Treatment For Schizophrenia

    Types of SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Schizophrenia is treated with medications combined with counseling and support.

    Antipsychotics are the primary type of medication used to treat schizophrenia, and patients usually have to take these drugs for the rest of their lives. Antipsychotics often cause uncomfortable side effects and as a result, many patients stop taking them. Never stop taking a prescribed medication without first talking to your doctor. It may be possible to change the dosage or regimen, or switch to a different medication to find one that works best for you and also minimize side effects. It often takes several attempts with different medications to find the right one for each individual patient.

    Counseling and other support for schizophrenia includes:

    • Cognitive behavioral therapy
    • Cognitive remediation interventions to help address the negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia
    • Supported employment
    • Behavioral skills training
    • Family education and support programs
    • Coordinated specialty care , which is recovery-oriented treatment programs for people with first episode psychosis, an early stage of schizophrenia
    • Assertive Community Treatment for individuals with schizophrenia who are at risk for repeated hospitalizations or homelessness

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    Can You Recover From Paranoid Schizophrenia

    Currently, there is no cure for paranoid schizophrenia or any other schizophrenia subtype. Doctors do, however, have several treatments that can help a person better cope with their symptoms. Examples of these include anti-psychotic medications as well as individual and family counseling. Counseling may focus on helping a person recognize their delusions, learn how to process their thoughts, or enhance a persons ability to communicate with others. This can be very difficult to accomplish because the delusions and paranoia feel very real to the person experiencing them.

    Ideally, the goals for paranoid schizophrenia treatment are to keep a person out of a state of psychosis, where they lose touch with reality. However, many patients with paranoid schizophrenia may require a hospital stay if they experience an acute episode of paranoid psychosis. Through consistent treatment, a person can ideally manage their paranoid schizophrenia symptoms.

    Paranoid schizophrenia can significantly affect a client, their friends, and family. For more in-depth learning on paranoid schizophrenia, view Symptom Medias CE Courses and video case studies.

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