Monday, January 30, 2023

What Was Ptsd Called In Ww2

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When I first began to develop EMDR therapy back in 1987, I experimented with everyone who was willing to volunteer. Id ask: Do you have anything bothering you? Not surprisingly, everyone had something. Whether it was a problem at work or a fight at home, by having them concentrate on it and using the procedures, rapid change usually occurred. Fascinating connections were made, and it was like having a window into the brain. For instance, one of the things I found very interesting was that often the problem they were concentrating on would spontaneously connect in their minds to earlier memories that were related in some way. Thats how I began to discover that the past was really present.

Because of the results with the counselor, the head of the Outreach Center was willing to ask the veterans with PTSD if any were interested in volunteering for treatment. It was during that time that I learned about the nobility of their suffering. Working with them let me see how often the pain came not from their own danger, but from their feelings about who they couldnt save. It also broke my heart to see how many were still diving for cover 20 years after returning from Vietnam. Even though they were physically back home, their minds were still haunted by the war memories stored in their brain. They couldnt connect to the present, because they were still haunted by the past.

For more information on the EMDR Institute, visit .

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World War Ii Years 1939

  • 1940: Charles Myers recognizes that shell shock is a poorly chosen term, which should be divided into shell concussion and shell shock itself. Myers recognizes that fright and horror often occur before shell shock, that can result from emotional stress rather than only exploding missiles, and that it can cause hysteria, neurasthenia and psychiatric illnesses.:8
  • 1941: Kardiner states that battle neurosis,battle fatigue,combat exhaustion and shell shock are the same: the common acquired disorder consequent on war stress, and suggests that traumatic neuroses in peacetime is the same condition.:8
  • Combat exhaustion is used to describe the gradual onset of PTSD symptoms, anxiety and physical responses to trauma. Fear and anxiety are higher than in World War I due to factors like mechanized terror, unpredictability, and more deadly weaponry. Psychiatric caualties make up 20-50% of discharges. :49
  • Forward psychiatry, a mix of preventative and therapeutic interventions developed during World War I, is rediscovered as psychiatric casuality escalate. :47, :49-50
  • The support of colleagues, comrades and neighbors is found to be both preventative and curative for traumatized troops, leading to group psychotherapy approaches for civilians in post-war years. :50
  • What Was The Role Of The British Army In World War 1

    Under the terms of the Entente Cordiale, the British Armys role in a European war was to embark soldiers of the British Expeditionary Force , which consisted of six infantry divisions and five cavalry brigades that were arranged into two Army corps: I Corps, under the command of Douglas Haig, and II Corps,

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    Why Did Soldiers Get Shell Shock

    Shell shock was generally seen as a sign of emotional weakness or cowardice. Many soldiers suffering from the condition were charged with desertion, cowardice, or insubordination. Some shell shocked soldiers were shot dead by their own side after being charged with cowardice. They were not given posthumous pardons.

    Development Of The Ptsd Diagnosis

    The long echo of WW2 trauma

    In 1952, the American Psychiatric Association produced the first Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , which included “gross stress reaction.” This diagnosis was proposed for people who were relatively normal, but had symptoms from traumatic events such as disaster or combat. A problem was that this diagnosis assumed that reactions to trauma would resolve relatively quickly. If symptoms were still present after six months, another diagnosis had to be made.

    Despite growing evidence that trauma exposure was associated with psychiatric problems, this diagnosis was eliminated in the second edition of DSM . DSM-II included “adjustment reaction to adult life” which was clearly insufficient to capture a PTSD-like condition. This diagnosis was limited to three examples of trauma: unwanted pregnancy with suicidal thoughts, fear linked to military combat, and Ganser syndrome in prisoners who face a death sentence.

    In 1980, APA added PTSD to DSM-III, which stemmed from research involving returning Vietnam War Veterans, Holocaust survivors, sexual trauma victims, and others. Links between the trauma of war and post-military civilian life were established.

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    Are There Different Types Of Ptsd

    If you are given a diagnosis of PTSD, you might be told that you have mild, moderate or severe PTSD. This explains what sort of impact your symptoms are having on you currently its not a description of how frightening or upsetting your experiences might have been.

    PTSD may be described differently in some situations:

    • Delayed-onset PTSD. If your symptoms emerge more than six months after experiencing trauma, this might be described as delayed PTSD or delayed-onset PTSD.
    • Complex PTSD. If you experienced trauma at an early age or it lasted for a long time, you might be given a diagnosis of complex PTSD. See our page oncomplex PTSD for more information.
    • Birth trauma. PTSD that develops after a traumatic experience of childbirth is also known as birth trauma. See our page on PTSD and birth trauma for more information.

    If you experience some PTSD symptoms while supporting someone close to you whos experienced trauma, this is sometimes known as secondary trauma.

    See our pages on trauma for more information on how traumatic experiences can affect your mental health.

    I couldnt understand why I felt like my brain wasnt functioning I couldnt remember things, I couldnt process things. It was like my brain had just slowed down and ground to a halt.

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    Work Through Survivors Guilt

    Feelings of guilt are very common among veterans with PTSD. You may have seen people injured or killed, often your friends and comrades. In the heat of the moment, you dont have time to fully process these events as they happen. But lateroften when youve returned homethese experiences come back to haunt you. You may ask yourself questions such as:

    • Why didnt I get hurt?
    • Why did I survive when others didnt?
    • Could I have done something differently to save them?

    You may end up blaming yourself for what happened and believing that your actions led to someone elses death. You may feel like others deserved to live more than youthat youre the one who should have died. This is survivors guilt.

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    Symptoms Of Ptsd In Veterans

    While you can develop symptoms of PTSD in the hours or days following a traumatic event, sometimes symptoms dont surface for months or even years after you return from deployment. While PTSD develops differently in each veteran, there are four symptom clusters:

  • Recurrent, intrusive reminders of the traumatic event, including distressing thoughts, nightmares, and flashbacks where you feel like the event is happening again. You may experience extreme emotional and physical reactions to reminders of the trauma such as panic attacks, uncontrollable shaking, and heart palpitations.
  • Extreme avoidance of things that remind you of the traumatic event, including people, places, thoughts, or situations you associate with the bad memories. This includes withdrawing from friends and family and losing interest in everyday activities.
  • Negative changes in your thoughts and mood, such as exaggerated negative beliefs about yourself or the world and persistent feelings of fear, guilt, or shame. You may notice a diminished ability to experience positive emotions.
  • Being on guard all the time, jumpy, and emotionally reactive, as indicated by irritability, anger, reckless behavior, difficulty sleeping, trouble concentrating, and hypervigilance .
  • Suicide prevention in veterans with PTSD

    Its common for veterans with PTSD to experience suicidal thoughts. Feeling suicidal is not a character defect, and it doesnt mean that you are crazy, weak, or flawed.

    Are There Other Specified Dissociative Disorder And Ddnos Types

    PTSD from WWI and WWII

    OSDD & DDNOS types, DSM 5 criteria and OSDD-1 differences from Dissociative Identity Disorder. Includes Other dissociative disorders from ICD-10 codes F44.8 /F44.89. Other Specified Dissociative Disorder & DDNOS types, DSM 5 criteria and differences from Dissociative Identity Disorder.

    This argument has been going on since 1889. The reason PTSD has had such poor treatment outcomes is due to therapists not recognizing and treating it as a Dissociative Disorder. Dissociative disorders are 100% curable. When treated as a Dissociative Disorder, PTSD can be cured.

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    Cite This Page As Follows:

    “What was Post Traumatic Stress Disorder called during World War II?” eNotes Editorial, 8 Feb. 2020, https://www.enotes.com/homework-help/what-was-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd-2068655.Accessed 25 Nov. 2022.

    Who are the experts?Our certified Educators are real professors, teachers, and scholars who use their academic expertise to tackle your toughest questions. Educators go through a rigorous application process, and every answer they submit is reviewed by our in-house editorial team.

    M.A. from University of Massachusetts-Boston

    Educator since 2018

    Post Traumatic Stress Disorder has been known by many names throughout history. This is partly because it had been often failed to be comprehensively understood. In the late 18th Century, the condition was often referred to as nostalgia because soldiers with it expressed a strong desire to go home. During the American Civil War, Soldier’s Heart or Irritable Heart came to be the name. It was thought that this condition was the result of severe overstimulation of the heart’s nervous system. In the First World War, Shell Shock was the common name applied.

    During World War II, what we now call Post Traumatic Stress Disorder often came to be known as battle fatigue. This war required soldiers to spend exceptionally long amounts of time in combat situations. It was thought that this condition was the result of over-exhaustion on the battlefield. A more official name, Combat Stress Reaction was applied in clinical settings.

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    • At the outset of the Aleutian Islands campaign, 800 native Unangan were removed and interned in squalid camps from 1942 through 1945.

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    How Ptsd Went From Shell

    The symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder have been recorded for millennia, but it took more than a century for physicians to classify it as a disorder with a specific treatment.

    The battles were over, but the soldiers still fought. Flashbacks, nightmares, and depression plagued them. Some slurred their speech. Others couldnt concentrate. Haunted and fearful, the soldiers struggled with the ghosts of war.

    Which war? If you guessed Vietnam, the U.S. Civil War, or even World War I, youd be wrong. These soldiers symptoms were recorded not on paper charts, but on cuneiform tablets inscribed in Mesopotamia more than 3,000 years ago.

    Back then, the ancient soldiers were assumed to have been hexed by ghosts. But if they were treated today, they would likely receive a formal psychiatric diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder .

    Although the diagnosis has its roots in combat, the medical community now recognizes that PTSD affects civilians and soldiers alike. Patients develop PTSD after experiencing, learning about, or witnessing a traumatic eventdefined as actual or threatened death, serious injury, or sexual violenceand their intrusive symptoms affect their ability to cope in the present.

    Did Ptsd Exist Before Viet Nam

    173 best PTSD: Mind Under Matter images on Pinterest

    Why didn’t we hear about PTSD prior to the 1980’s? Because it didn’t exist? No, 1980 was simply the year it was added to the Diagnostic Statistical Manual . But this set of symptoms was observed far before then.

    The first mention of symptoms correlated with PTSD dates back three thousand years ago. Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphics depicted the emotions and fears soldiers felt while in combat. The Greek historian Herodotus wrote, in 480 B.C, of a Spartan soldier who was “taken off the front lines due to his trembling and later took his own life in shame.”

    In 1688, PTSD was termed Nostalgia by French physician Johannes Hofer, who described as having three stages: 1) heightened excitement and imagination, 2) period of fever and prominent gastrointestinal symptoms, and 3) frustration and depression. Symptoms of PTSD were called Soldiers Heart and Da Costa Syndrome during the Civil War.

    PTSD gained recognition during WWI, which had some of the worst casualties in history as a result of weaponry that redefined warfare. The psychological effects of this war were seen in returning veterans as involuntary tics and shaking uncontrollably and named Shell Shock or War Neuroses. The term was replaced by Combat Fatigue and later, Combat Stress Reaction during WWII due to the longer tours and extensive time soldiers spent on the battlefields. Gen George S. Patton and others did not believe it was real.

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    A Brief History Of Ptsd And How It Was Discovered

    We generally think of post-traumatic stress disorder as a modern affliction, but why is this? Despite changes in technology, science and our understanding of certain medical issues, the human condition has been largely the same since the beginning of time. Presumably, we can find out some information about the history behind PTSD. After all, isnt it reasonable that our ancestors would have suffered from PTSD at least the same amount if not more due to the more common hardships of the past?

    Historians tend to agree. In 2015, Smithsonian Magazine published a story about John Hildt, a Civil War soldier whose arm was shattered by musket fire during a pivotal battle in Virginia. After he received treatment for his lost limb, he was sent to an asylum with a case of acute mania.

    Medical records on cases like this are common, but these crude early diagnoses only hint at what patients were experiencing. Based on our understanding of what PTSD is, though, it certainly seems reasonable that these causes were caused by trauma, largely in the same way that PTSD develops today.

    Is Ptsd Still Called Ptsd

    Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms have been documented as far back as the Civil War. Though the name has experienced a few changes, from soldiers heart, shell shock, battle fatigue, PTSD and now more recently post-traumatic stress, the definition for the condition remains relatively the same.

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    Ptsd In Children And Teenagers

    Older children and teenagers experience similar problems to adults when they develop PTSD. Younger children can express distress in a different way. For example, they may re-live the traumatic event through repetitive play rather than having unwanted memories of the event during the day. Many children have frightening dreams without recognisable content rather than nightmares that replay the traumatic event. Children may also lose interest in play, become socially withdrawn, or have extreme temper tantrums.

    About one third of children who experience a traumatic event will develop PTSD.

    Other problems that can develop alongside PTSD include anxiety or depression, defiant behaviour, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and in teenagers and young adults, suicidal thoughts and alcohol or drug use.

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    Is Cptsd Worse Than Ptsd

    Fight or flight: the veterans at war with PTSD

    CPTSD often stems from ongoing childhood neglect, domestic abuse, human trafficking, and living in a war-torn region for more than one year. Both PTSD and CPTSD require professional treatments. Due to its complex nature, CPTSD therapy might be more intense, frequent, and extensive than PTSD treatment.

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    Ptsd In The Civil War

    Nostalgia was a phenomenon noted throughout Europe and the disease reached American soil during the U.S. Civil War . In fact, nostalgia became a common medical diagnosis that spread throughout camps. But some military doctors viewed the illness as a sign of weakness and one that only affected men with a feeble willand public ridicule was sometimes the recommended cure for nostalgia.

    While nostalgia described changes in veterans from a psychological perspective, other models took a physiological approach.

    After the Civil War, U.S. doctor Jacob Mendez Da Costa studied veterans and found that many of them suffered from certain physical issues unrelated to wounds, such as palpitations, constricted breathing, and other cardiovascular symptoms. These symptoms were thought to arise from an overstimulation of the hearts nervous system, and the condition became known as soldiers heart,irritable heart, or Da Costas syndrome.

    Interestingly, PTSD-like symptoms werent restricted to soldiers in the 1800s. During the Industrial Revolution, rail travel became more commonas did railway accidents.

    Survivors of these accidents displayed various psychological symptoms , which collectively became known as railway spine and railway brain because autopsies suggested railway accidents caused microscopic lesions to the central nervous system.

    What Was Ptsd Called In Vietnam

    Combat FatigueThe psychological effects of this war were seen in returning veterans as involuntary tics and shaking uncontrollably and named Shell Shock or War Neuroses. The term was replaced by Combat Fatigue and later, Combat Stress Reaction during WWII due to the longer tours and extensive time soldiers spent on the battlefields.

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    Tips For Grounding Yourself During A Flashback:

    If youre starting to disassociate or experience a flashback, try using your senses to bring you back to the present and ground yourself. Experiment to find what works best for you.

    Movement. Move around vigorously rub your hands together shake your head

    Touch. Splash cold water on your face grip a piece of ice touch or grab on to a safe object pinch yourself play with worry beads or a stress ball

    Sight. Blink rapidly and firmly look around and take inventory of what you see

    Sound. Turn on loud music clap your hands or stomp your feet talk to yourself

    Smell. Smell something that links you to the present or a scent that recalls good memories

    Taste. Suck on a strong mint or chew a piece of gum bite into something tart or spicy drink a glass of cold water or juice

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