Genetic Risk For Schizophrenia
Genetic studies are greatly accelerating our understanding of schizophrenia . Relatives who are genetically closer to a schizophrenic patient are more likely to develop the disorder themselves, so there is great interest in determining individual relativesâ risk for the disease, as well as understanding its genetic transmission. Two key themes are dominant in this work: twin or family studies of disease transmission, and the search for susceptibility genes. Twin and family studies reveal that there is a genetically transmitted risk for schizophrenia: adoption studies confirm this, and also control for differences in family environment that could conceivably promote the disease. Siblings of patients have a 14% lifetime risk of developing schizophrenia, and monozygotic twins of patients, who have identical genes, have a 48% risk. Risk therefore increases, the higher the proportion of genetic material in common with a patient. Intriguingly, an identical twins risk is not 100%. This shows that genes are not all-important in producing the disease. Discordance studies, where just one of two identical twins has the disease, are designed to study non-genetic triggers, which promote disease expression in some relatives but not others.
Canadian Psychological Association Guidelines On Humane Care And Use Of Animals In Research
The following are some of the most important ethical principles from the Canadian Psychological Associations guidelines on research with animals.
- II.45 Not use animals in their research unless there is a reasonable expectation that the research will increase understanding of the structures and processes underlying behaviour, or increase understanding of the particular animal species used in the study, or result eventually in benefits to the health and welfare of humans or other animals.
- II.46 Use a procedure subjecting animals to pain, stress, or privation only if an alternative procedure is unavailable and the goal is justified by its prospective scientific, educational, or applied value.
- II.47 Make every effort to minimize the discomfort, illness, and pain of animals. This would include performing surgical procedures only under appropriate anaesthesia, using techniques to avoid infection and minimize pain during and after surgery and, if disposing of experimental animals is carried out at the termination of the study, doing so in a humane way.
- II.48 Use animals in classroom demonstrations only if the instructional objectives cannot be achieved through the use of video-tapes, films, or other methods, and if the type of demonstration is warranted by the anticipated instructional gain .
What Are The Symptoms Of Factitious Disorder
People with factitious disorder may:
- Lie about or mimic symptoms.
- Hurt themselves to bring on symptoms.
- Alter diagnostic tests .
- Be willing to undergo painful or risky tests and operations in order to obtain the sympathy and special attention given to people who are truly medically ill.
Most people with this condition do not believe they have factitious disorder. They may not be entirely aware of why they are inducing their own illness. Many people with factitious disorder may also suffer from other mental disorders, particularly personality or identity disorders.
Don’t Miss: What Causes Anxiety Panic Attacks
Which Of The Following Statements Is True About Anxiety
O Phobias are anxiety disorders that lead to the loss of short-term memory. O Posttraumatic stress disorders occur after experiencing terrifying. Anxiety disorders are the most common of mental disorders and affect more than 25. experiences this fear in two or more of the following situations:.b. An individual suffering from a panic attack may mistake her symptoms for a heart attack. c. The primary symptom of obsessive-compulsive disorder is. Anxiety is a normal and natural part of our lives. Its a reaction to something that happens. Its a response to stress or fear. Its also a normal part of. Question: Which of the following statements about anxiety is TRUE? options: 1. Anxiety is always abnormal. 2. Anxiety is a symptom that occurs only in the.
Family Education And Support
Educational programs for family members, significant others, and friends offer instruction about schizophrenia symptoms and treatments, and strategies for assisting the person with the illness. Increasing key supporters understanding of psychotic symptoms, treatment options, and the course of recovery can lessen their distress, bolster coping and empowerment, and strengthen their capacity to offer effective assistance. Family-based services may be provided on an individual basis or through multi-family workshops and support groups. For more information about family-based services in your area, you can visit the family education and support groups page on the National Alliance on Mental Illness website.
Recommended Reading: Can You Be Bipolar And Have Bpd
Don’t Miss: Is The Sound Of Silence About Depression
Stigmatization Of Mental Health In Media
There are two common types of stigmas social and self.
- Social stigma is the disapproval or discrimination against a person based on their characteristics such as culture, gender, race, age, intelligence, and health.
- Self stigma is the process by which those with a mental health disorder perceive public stigma, internalize it, and then apply it to themselves.
There are several ways in which the entertainment industry, and subsequently society as a whole, perpetuate negative stereotypes. For example, when a show trivializes the nature of serious disorder like postpartum depression by waving it off and telling the character to get over it or snap out of it. This has a trickle-down effect as society begins to mimic what they see on screen. These types of portrayals of mental illness could have long reaching affects.
Unfortunately, the medias main job is to entertain. If their movie is a box office smash or their show receives consistently excellent ratings, then that show is considered successful.
What Is Factitious Disorder
Factitious disorder is a serious mental health disorder in which a person appears sick or produces physical or mental illness. People with factitious disorder deliberately produce symptoms of an illness for the purpose of receiving care and attention in a medical setting. The symptoms arent intended to get them practical benefits the gain is believed to be mainly psychological.
Factitious disorder is considered a mental illness. Its associated with severe emotional difficulties and patients likelihood of harming themselves by continuing to produce more symptoms, resulting in getting themselves unnecessary procedures and surgeries.
Read Also: Is Bipolar The Same As Schizophrenia
Which Of The Following Statements Is True Regarding The Cognitive Deficits Associated With Schizo
Which of the following statements is true regarding the cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia? a. Cognitive deficits are solely an outcome of schizophrenia b. Cognitive deficits act at both a risk factor and an outcome of schizophrenia c. Cognitive deficits are solely a risk factor for schizophrenia d. Cognitive deficits are neither a risk factor or an outcome of schizophrenia
Disorganized Symptoms Of Schizophrenia
These are positive symptoms that show that the person canât think clearly or respond as expected. Examples include:
- Talking in sentences that donât make sense or using nonsense words, making it difficult for the person to communicate or hold a conversation
- Shifting quickly from one thought to the next without obvious or logical connections between them
- Being unable to make decisions
- Writing excessively but without meaning
- Forgetting or losing things
- Repeating movements or gestures, like pacing or walking in circles
- Having problems making sense of everyday sights, sounds, and feelings
Read Also: Is Trichotillomania An Anxiety Disorder
Working To Stop The Stigma
We can, and must, all be a part of the important work to destigmatize mental health. It may feel like a small thing at the time, but every conversation matters when it comes to improving how we talk about mental illnesses and how we make space for everyone to feel validated and supported.
Make It OK is a HealthPartners campaign that works to end the stigma surrounding mental illnesses. It offers tools and resources for practicing how to have a positive and supportive conversation. You can also. Sign the pledge and take a stand against stigma.
Which Of The Following Statements Is True Regarding Schizophrenia
Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding schizophrenia?
a. Schizophrenia typically emerges in late childhood.
b. The most distinctive features of schizophrenia is the presence of disorganized speech and behavior.
c. Children of schizophrenic parents have a tenfold risk of developing the disease.
d. The lifetime prevalence of schizophrenia worldwide is about 5 percent.
You May Like: What Is A Panic Attack
Hiv Aids And Viral Hepatitis In Mat
HIV, AIDS, and viral hepatitis are important public health concerns for both patients and health professionals in substance use disorder treatment programs. MAT typically involves HIV and hepatitis antibody testing at admission, or a referral for antibody testing.
HIV and hepatitis prevention and reduced transmission are key goals of OTPs and other programs designed to treat substance use disorders. In addition, HIV testing and risk-reduction counseling, have been shown to stop or decrease drug use and related risk behaviors, including risky injection practices and unsafe sex.
Myth: Mental Health Problems Dont Affect Me
Fact: Mental health problems are actually very common. In 2014, about:
- One in five American adults experienced a mental health issue
- One in 10 young people experienced a period of major depression
- One in 25 Americans lived with a serious mental illness, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depression
Suicide is the 10th leading cause of death in the United States. It accounts for the loss of more than 41,000 American lives each year, more than double the number of lives lost to homicide. Learn more about mental health problems.
Recommended Reading: How Does Depakote Treat Bipolar Disorder
Rating Scales For Catatonia
Using a rating scale helps to identify people who have catatonia that might otherwise not have been diagnosed .
The BushFrancis Catatonia Rating Scale appears to be the most widely used instrument for catatonia. The BFCRS has 23 items, and there is also a shorter, 14-item screening version. The reliability and validity of the BFCRS has been established . Reference Ungvari, Leung and NgUngvari et al reported that using the BFCRS, 32% of 225 patients with chronic schizophrenia met the criteria for catatonia. Their study adds strength to the view that catatonia is still not uncommon and that its incidence is grossly underestimated.
Another catatonia rating scale, the Modified Rogers Scale , has also been validated . The MRS rates abnormalities in movement, volition, speech and overall behaviour, and also aids in the distinction of catatonic signs from seemingly similar extrapyramidal side-effects .
Reference Peralta and CuestaPeralta & Cuesta have postulated that the presence of three or more of the following 11 signs constitutes a diagnosis of catatonic syndrome: immobility/stupor, mutism, negativism, oppositionism, posturing, catalepsy, automatic obedience, echophenomena, rigidity, verbigeration and withdrawal.
What Causes Factitious Disorder
The exact cause of factitious disorder is not known, but researchers believe both biological and psychological factors play a role. Some theories suggest that a history of abuse or neglect as a child, or a history of frequent illnesses in themselves or family members that required hospitalization, may be factors in the development of the disorder.
Most patients with factitious disorder have histories of abuse, trauma, family dysfunction, social isolation, early chronic medical illness or professional experience in healthcare .
Read Also: Why Do You Have Panic Attacks At Night
What Are The Complications Of Factitious Disorder
People with factitious disorder are at risk for health problems associated with hurting themselves by causing symptoms. In addition, they may suffer health problems related to multiple tests, procedures, and treatments, and are at high risk for substance abuse and suicide attempts. A complication of factitious disorder imposed on another is the abuse and potential death of the victims.
How Our Assignment Help Service Works
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
2. Pay for the order
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writers area of specialization.
3. Track the progress
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
4. Download the paper
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!
Also Check: Why Are So Many People Depressed
Which Occupation Would Be Especially Difficult For A Person Who Suffers From Acrophobia
Q. Which occupation would be especially difficult for a person who suffers from acrophobia? Posted in General. 1348 students attemted this question.Which occupation would be especially difficult for a person who suffers from acrophobia? answer choices. cashier. baseball umpire. window washer.a specific phobia. 105. Which occupation would be especially difficult for a person who suffers fromacrophobia?a. cashier. Which Occupation Would Be Especially Difficult For A Person Who Suffers From Acrophobia? A) window washer B) cashier C) emergency room nurse D) baseball. Which occupation would be especially difficult for a person who suffers from acrophobia?Answer: Window washer. Answer : Window washer.
Ensuring That Research Is Ethical
Making decisions about the ethics of research involves weighing the costs and benefits of conducting versus not conducting a given research project. The costs involve potential harm to the research participants and to the field, whereas the benefits include the potential for advancing knowledge about human behaviour and offering various advantages, some educational, to the individual participants. Most generally, the ethics of a given research project are determined through a cost-benefit analysis, in which the costs are compared with the benefits. If the potential costs of the research appear to outweigh any potential benefits that might come from it, then the research should not proceed.
One important tool for ensuring that research is ethical is the use of informed consent. A sample informed consent form is shown in Figure 3.2, Informed consent, conducted before a participant begins a research session, is designed to explain the research procedures and inform the participant of his or her rights during the investigation. The informed consent explains as much as possible about the true nature of the study, particularly everything that might be expected to influence willingness to participate, but it may in some cases withhold some information that allows the study to work.
The informed consent form explains the research procedures and informs the participant of his or her rights during the investigation. Informed consent should address the following issues:
You May Like: How Many People Have Social Phobia
Support For Victims And Witnesses
Some people who have mental health conditions and disorders who are victims of, or witnesses to, criminal offences may be reluctant to report the crime, because they fear the consequences of reporting.
For example, they may think that they will be deemed to be unreliable witnesses that they will not be taken seriously that they may be victimised. They may be in a care setting and fear for their future safety or security. They may be embarrassed, or afraid that their personal medical history will become public knowledge. They may be fearful of the court process. Any of these, or other, factors may prevent a crime being reported, a witness coming forward or supporting a case through to court. Through the way in which the CPS reviews and handles a case, it will try to ensure that a person with mental health conditions has the confidence, knowledge and support to enable the necessary action to be taken to prevent further offences and to hold the offender accountable.
Prosecutors should not make assumptions about the support needs of a victim or witness who has mental health issues and/or a learning disability. The starting point is finding out what, if any, support needs might assist.
Court proceedings themselves may have an adverse effect on the mental health of the victim or witness and may exacerbate a pre-existing condition. A court familiarisation visit may help to reduce the anxiety of the victim or witness on the day of the trial.
Positive Symptoms Of Schizophrenia
In this case, the word positive doesnât mean good. It refers to added thoughts or actions that arenât based in reality. Theyâre sometimes called psychotic symptoms and can include:
- Delusions: These are false, mixed, and sometimes strange beliefs that arenât based in reality and that the person refuses to give up, even when shown the facts. For example, a person with delusions may believe that people can hear their thoughts, that they are God or the devil, or that people are putting thoughts into their head or plotting against them.
- Hallucinations: These involve sensations that arent real. Hearing voices is the most common hallucination in people with schizophrenia. The voices may comment on the persons behavior, insult them, or give commands. Less common types include seeing things that arent there, smelling strange odors, having a funny taste in your mouth, and feeling sensations on your skin even though nothing is touching your body.
- Catatonia: In this condition, the person may stop speaking, and their body may be fixed in a single position for a very long time.
You May Like: What Is A Bipolar Question For An Interview
Myth: Children Don’t Experience Mental Health Problems
Fact: Even very young children may show early warning signs of mental health concerns. These mental health problems are often clinically diagnosable, and can be a product of the interaction of biological, psychological, and social factors.
Half of all mental health disorders show first signs before a person turns 14 years old, and three-quarters of mental health disorders begin before age 24.
Unfortunately, only half of children and adolescents with diagnosable mental health problems receive the treatment they need. Early mental health support can help a child before problems interfere with other developmental needs.