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What Are The Features Of Schizophrenia

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S Used In Family Therapy

What is Psychosis? Understand Psychosis in Schizophrenia and Bipolar with Psychotic Features

⢠Pharoah identified examples of how family therapy works: It helps family members achieve a balance between caring for the individual and maintaining their own lives, it reduces anger and guilt, it improves their ability to anticipate and solve problems and forms a therapeutic alliance.

⢠Families taught to have weekly family meetings solving problems on family and individual goals, resolve conflict between members, and pinpoint stressors.

⢠Preliminary analysis: Through interviews and observation the therapist identifies strengths and weaknesses of family members and identifies problem behaviors.

⢠Information transfer â teaching the patient and the family the actual facts about the illness, itâs causes, the influence of drug abuse, and the effect of stress and guilt.

⢠Communication skills training â teach family to listen, to express emotions and to discuss things. Additional communication skills are taught, such as âcompromise and negotiation,â and ârequesting a time outâ . This is mainly aimed at lowering expressed emotion.

Symptoms And Signs Of Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is a chronic illness that may progress through several phases, although duration and patterns of phases can vary. Patients with schizophrenia tend to have had psychotic symptoms an average of 12 to 24 months before presenting for medical care but the disorder is now often recognized earlier in its course.

Symptoms of schizophrenia typically impair the ability to perform complex and difficult cognitive and motor functions thus, symptoms often markedly interfere with work, social relationships, and self-care. Unemployment, isolation, deteriorated relationships, and diminished quality of life are common outcomes.

What Is The Cause Of Schizophrenia

The cause is not known for certain but there are several current ideas. It is thought that the balance of brain chemicals is altered. Neurotransmitters are needed to pass messages between brain cells. An altered balance of these may cause the symptoms. It is not clear why changes occur in the neurotransmitters.

Inherited factors are thought to be important. For example, a close family member of someone with schizophrenia has a 1 in 10 chance of also developing the condition. This is 10 times the normal chance. A child born to a mother and father who both have schizophrenia has a higher risk of developing it but one or more factors appear to be needed to trigger the condition in people who are genetically prone to it. There are various theories as to what these might be. For example:

  • Stress such as relationship problems, financial difficulties, social isolation, bereavement, etc.
  • A viral infection during the mother’s pregnancy, or in early childhood.
  • A lack of oxygen at the time of birth that may damage a part of the brain.
  • Illegal or street drugs may trigger the condition in some people. For example, heavy cannabis usage may account for between 8% and 14% of schizophrenia cases. Many other recreational drugs such as amfetamines, cocaine, ketamine and lysergic acid diethylamide can trigger a schizophrenia-like illness.

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Evolution Of The Concept Of Schizophrenia From Kraepelin To Dsm

Our present conceptualization of dementia praecox and schizophrenia derives principally from the work of Kraepelin , Bleuler and Schneider differences in their ideas about the basic nature of this illness have caused discrepancies in its definition over the past century . Although case descriptions resembling schizophrenia go back a few millennia, its consideration as a disease entity dates back to the mid-19th century. Griesinger described what would

Schizophrenia: The 7 Keys To Self


Seek social support. Friends and family vital to helping you get the right treatment and keeping your symptoms under control. Regularly connecting with others face-to-face is also the most effective way to calm your nervous system and relieve stress. Stay involved with others by continuing your work or education. If thats not possible, consider volunteering, joining a schizophrenia support group, or taking a class or joining a club to spend time with people who have common interests. As well as keeping you socially connected, it can help you feel good about yourself.

Manage stress. High levels of stress are believed to trigger schizophrenic episodes by increasing the bodys production of the hormone cortisol. As well as staying socially connected, there are plenty of steps you can take to reduce your stress levels. Try adopting a regular relaxation practice such as yoga, deep breathing, or meditation.

Get regular exercise. As well as all the emotional and physical benefits, exercise may help reduce symptoms of schizophrenia, improve your focus and energy, and help you feel calmer. Aim for 30 minutes of activity on most days, or if its easier, three 10-minute sessions. Try rhythmic exercise that engages both your arms and legs, such as walking, running, swimming, or dancing.

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Early Warning Signs Of Schizophrenia

In some people, schizophrenia appears suddenly and without warning. But for most, it comes on slowly, with subtle warning signs and a gradual decline in functioning, long before the first severe episode. Often, friends or family members will know early on that something is wrong, without knowing exactly what.

In this early phase of schizophrenia, you may seem eccentric, unmotivated, emotionless, and reclusive to others. You may start to isolate yourself, begin neglecting your appearance, say peculiar things, and show a general indifference to life. You may abandon hobbies and activities, and your performance at work or school can deteriorate.

Negative Symptoms Of Schizophrenia: Things That Might Stop Happening

Negative symptoms refer to an absence or lack of normal mental function involving thinking, behavior, and perception. You might notice:

  • Lack of pleasure. The person may not seem to enjoy anything anymore. A doctor will call this anhedonia.
  • Trouble with speech. They might not talk much or show any feelings. Doctors call this alogia.
  • Flattening: The person with schizophrenia might seem like they have a terrible case of the blahs. When they talk, their voice can sound flat, like they have no emotions. They may not smile normally or show usual facial emotions in response to conversations or things happening around them. A doctor might call this affective flattening.
  • Withdrawal. This might include no longer making plans with friends or becoming a hermit. Talking to the person can feel like pulling teeth: If you want an answer, you have to really work to pry it out of them. Doctors call this apathy.
  • Struggling with the basics of daily life. They may stop bathing or taking care of themselves.
  • No follow-through. People with schizophrenia have trouble staying on schedule or finishing what they start. Sometimes they can’t get started at all. A doctor might call this avolition.

Depression has some of the same symptoms, too. They can be hard to spot, especially in teens, because even healthy teens can have big emotional swings between highs and lows.

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Comparison Among Diagnostic Groups

The VBM and ROI results of Dataset1 are separately reported in sections 3.2.1 and 3.2.2, respectively. The VBM and ROI results of Dataset2 are described in .

3.2.1. VBM analysis

The VBM results of Dataset1 are reported in , where the clusters with significant GMV difference between the three couples of groups are shown. The anatomical location and statistics of the SPM peaks and the corresponding cluster extension are listed in . Compared to HC, BD patients showed reduced GMV in three areas, mainly in the right hemisphere. These regions were located in 1) anterior and mesial portions of the cingulate cortex, 2) superior temporal cortex and temporal pole, 3) calcarine cortex, cuneus and lingual gyrus. The peak voxel was in the right subgenual cingulate cortex.

Results of the VBM analysis of Dataset1: regions with significant GMV difference between SCZ, BD and HC .

VBM: voxel based morphometry. GMV: gray matter volume. SCZ: schizophrenia. BD: bipolar disorder. HC: healthy controls. cFWE: cluster family wise error.

Diagnostic Criteria For Schizophrenia Dsm

Schizophrenia with Delusions Example, DSM 5 Symptoms, Psychology Film

The following criteria, as outlined by the DSM-5, must be met in order for schizophrenia to be accurately diagnosed:

  • The individual experiences two or more of the following for a significant portion of time during a 1-month period. And at least one of these must be , , or :
  • Delusions
  • Disorganized speech
  • Completely disorganized or catatonic behavior
  • Negative symptoms, such as diminished emotional expression
  • For a significant amount of time since the disturbance began, level of functioning in one or more major areas is clearly below the level achieved prior to onset.
  • In children or adolescents, there is a failure to achieve the expected level of interpersonal, academic, or occupational functioning.
  • Signs of the disturbance continue for 6 months or longer. This period must include at least 1 full month of symptoms that meet the first criteria and may include periods of residual symptoms. During these residual periods, the signs of the disturbance may be manifested only by negative symptoms or by two or more symptoms outlined in the first criteria, only in a lesser form.
  • The disturbance cannot be better explained by schizoaffective disorder, depressive or bipolar disorder because either:
  • No major depressive or manic episodes have occurred concurrently with the active-phase symptoms or
  • If mood episodes have occurred during active phase symptoms, its been for a minor amount of time.
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    Comparison With Other Multicentric Studies

    To our knowledge, this is the one of the first multicentric studies on SCZ and BD with such a large number of patients and combining ROI and VBM analyses.

    A very recent multicentric study that deserves mention was conducted by Ivleva and colleagues , who compared GMV in a large sample of patients with SCZ, PBD and schizoaffective disorder , their first-degree relatives and HC. In their study, GMV was investigated at the voxel-level and in 5-mm radius spheres centered on the VBM peak voxels. In line with our results, they showed broader GMV deficits in SCZ than in BD when compared to HC, as well as GMV deficits in BD in the cingulate and superior temporal cortices, mainly in the right hemisphere. It is worth noticing that Ivleva et al. contrasted GMV across DSM diagnoses and psychosis biotypes, providing evidence for the meaningful classification of patients based on neurobiological constructs. This represents an interesting perspective that should be investigated in the next future, when a larger sample of PBD patients will be available.

    Another study that deserves mention involved 13 Centers and around 500 subjects, either SCZ patients or HC, and produced VBM and ROI results on SCZ that were overall in agreement with ours. However, compared to our study, it was limited by the absence of BD patients, besides being based on a smaller sample of subjects distributed among a larger number of centers, which made the results more susceptible to confounding center effects.

    Functioning In Social And Professional Situations

    When social and work functioning is impaired it may be helpful to consult with a doctor. Because the symptoms tend to develop over time you may not realize how long you have been experiencing trouble in these areas of your life. Noticing that a pattern has developed can be a signal to consult with a professional.

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    What Is Paranoid Schizophrenia

    Paranoid schizophrenia is one type of schizophrenia. In this type, the person’s false beliefs are mainly about being persecuted or being punished by someone. The person may hear the voice of someone he or she believes is punishing them. The person may believe that he or she has been specially chosen to complete a secret mission. These are just a few examples of any number of false beliefs a person with this disorder may have.

    Other types of schizophrenia include “catatonic” schizophrenia and “disorganized” schizophrenia. Different types of schizophrenia may have some of the same symptoms.

    Its Not What You Think


    Schizophrenia IS:

    • A brain diseasethe result of physical and biochemical changes in the brain
    • Youths greatest disablerage of onset is usually 15 24 years
    • Treatable with medication
    • More common than you think. It afflicts one in 100 people worldwide thats about 40,000 of your BC neighbours.

    Schizophrenia IS NOT:

    • Caused by childhood trauma, bad parenting, or poverty
    • The result of any actions or personal failures of the individual

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    Whats The Difference Between Psychosis And Schizophrenia

    Psychosis is a syndrome or group of symptoms. Someone experiencing an episode of psychosis is having a break with reality. Major symptoms of psychosis are hallucinations and delusions. Hallucinations are sensations that are not real, such as hearing voices or sounds that arent real. Hearing voices is a common hallucination, but hallucinations can be experiences with any sensehearing, sight, smell, taste, or touch. Delusions are strong beliefs that cant possibly be true. Common delusions include the belief that someone is following or monitoring you, or the belief that you have extraordinary powers or abilities. Other symptoms of psychosis include difficulties concentrating, completing tasks, or making decisions. Thoughts may feel jumbled or confused. Some people have a hard time following conversations or speaking clearly. Psychosis can even affect the way people move or express their emotions.

    Psychosis and schizophrenia are treatable. Its important to seek help as soon as possible.

    Where can I learn more?

    When To See A Healthcare Provider

    As schizophrenia usually develops gradually, it can be difficult to pinpoint when changes in behavior start or know whether they are something to worry about. Identifying that you are experiencing a pattern of concerning behaviors can be a sign you should consult with a professional.

    Symptoms may intensify in the run-up to an acute episode of psychosis in schizophrenia. The warning signs include:

    • A worrying drop in grades or job performance
    • New difficulty thinking clearly or concentrating
    • Suspiciousness of or uneasiness with others
    • Withdrawing socially, spending a lot more time alone than usual
    • Unusual, overly intense new ideas, strange feelings, or having no feelings at all
    • Difficulty telling reality from fantasy
    • Confused speech or trouble communicating

    While these changes might not be concerning by themselves, if you or a loved one are experiencing a number of these symptoms, you should contact a mental health professional. It can be difficult for those with schizophrenia to want to get help, especially if they are experiencing symptoms such as paranoia.

    If you or your loved one is thinking of or talking about harming themselves, contact someone who can help right away. You can call the toll-free, 24-hour National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 800-237-8255.

    If you require immediate emergency care, call 911 for emergency services or go to the nearest hospital emergency room.

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    Epidemiology And Environmental Risk Factors

    Schizophrenia occurs worldwide, and for decades it was generally believed to have a uniform lifetime morbid risk of 1% across time, geography, and gender. This implied either that environmental factors are not important in conferring risk or that the relevant exposures are ubiquitous across all populations studied. It was not until relatively recently that this uniform view of risk was efficiently dismantled in a series of meta-analyses by McGrath and colleagues. They provided central estimates of an incidence per 100.000 population per year of approximately 15 in males and 10 in females, a point prevalence of 4.6 per 1000, and a lifetime morbid risk of app 0.7 %. These rates are based upon relatively conservative diagnostic criteria and, when broader criteria including other psychotic disorders such as delusional disorder, brief psychotic disorder and psychosis not otherwise specified are applied, the rates are 2 3 fold higher. However, more importantly, McGrath and colleagues documented a large variation across studies, five-fold or more, that could not be ascribed to diagnostic or other methodological differences, but which pointed towards real differences in occurrence and exposure to etiological factors. These findings have revitalized schizophrenia epidemiology and the resulting new wave of studies, together with advances in genetics, have begun to cast light on how the disorder might arise.

    Different Types Of Schizophrenia

    Psychosis: Schizophrenia, Schizoaffective Disorder, Delusional Disorder, Hallucinations

    According to an article published by the Universidad de Salamanca, the classification of different types of schizophrenia as well as the acceptance of the disorder has only recently taken place. It was previously thought that a person suffering from this disease was possessed by the devil.

    For this reason, we can say that psychology has evolved significantly since those times. Prior to the publication of the DSM-V , there were only five types of schizophrenia. We list them below.

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    Challenges In Reaching Out

    It can be challenging for people with schizophrenia to reach out to a doctor or other health professional about their concerns. This can be particularly tough for people who may be experiencing symptoms that leave them feeling suspicious of others.

    Reassurance from people they trust can be helpful in encouraging and prompting someone to speak with a doctor or other mental health professional.

    Different Types Of Schizophrenia According To Dsm

    Today, the DSM-5 is the most widely used manual for diagnosing mental disorders. This tool includes several changes to the types of schizophrenia compared to previous publications.

    According to a study published in Revista Iberoamericana de Psicosomática , the removal of these subtypes was the most important change. Rather, the aim is to clarify the symptoms at the onset of the disease. This is done to make it easier for a psychologist or psychiatrist to assess and treat a patient with schizophrenia.

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    Can Schizophrenia Be Treated

    Yes. The main types of treatment are counseling and medicines to lessen or stop psychotic symptoms. Medicines will control psychotic symptoms in most people. In milder cases of schizophrenia, medications may not be needed. Medicines can:

    • Lessen or stop hallucinations
    • Help the person tell the difference between hallucinations and the real world
    • Lessen or stop false beliefs
    • Lessen feelings of confusion
    • Help the person think more clearly

    Lessening of these symptoms can help the person resume his or her normal lifestyle and activities. Medicines for schizophrenia need to be taken regularly, even after symptoms are gone. Some people with schizophrenia will stop taking their medicine because they believe the medicine is no longer needed, or they dislike the medication’s side effects. Psychotic symptoms often return when medication is stopped. Do not stop taking medicine without the advice of your healthcare provider.

    Discuss any concerns you have about side effects with your healthcare provider.

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