Bipolar Disorder In The Dsm
In the previous version of the DSM , bipolar disorder was categorized in the section that included depressive disorders, substance-induced mood disorders, and mood disorders due to a general medical condition. The most recent version of the DSM, the DSM-5, now places bipolar and related disorders in their own disorder class. This category includes bipolar I, bipolar II, and cyclothymic disorder.
A number of additional specifiers also exist:
- Bipolar disorder with mixed features
- Bipolar disorder with anxious distress
- Bipolar disorder with melancholic features
- Bipolar disorder with atypical features
- Bipolar disorder with psychotic features
- Bipolar disorder with catatonic features
Specifiers are diagnostic extensions that help clarify the course, features, or severity of the condition.
Categories Of Disabilities In Idea
There are 14 categories of disabilities listed in IDEA.
I cant believe that I havent done a post on Disability Classification on the IEP before. Well, actually I can. Ive been asked before and its a pretty big piece to bite off and chew. There 13 or 14 classifications of disability on the IEP. The reason it changes is because DD disappears after age 9 in most states. You can read more about that by clicking the link at number 4 on the list.
Does it matter which box is checked? Can you have more than one IEP disability category checked? What if you disagree with the team on which disability classification to check on the IEP?
But thankfully I am not doing it until now, because my thinking has really changed on this. One great thing about being an advocate and meeting so many parents is that I get so many viewpoints on issues. It genuinely helps me learn and form opinions.
And my opinion on this, much like my opinion on vision statements, has changed.
Does it matter which classification box for the disability category is checked on your childs IEP? Yes. Or maybe not. See, this is why I didnt want to do this post before. Mostly yes, I lean towards yes. Lets dig in, shall we?
First, lets go over the background of this.
Tip : Reach Out For Face
Having a strong support system is essential to staying happy and healthy. Often, simply having someone to talk to face-to-face can be an enormous help in relieving bipolar depression and boosting your outlook and motivation. The people you turn to dont have to be able to fix you they just have to be good listeners. The more people that you can turn to who will be available and good listeners, the more likely you are to manage your moods.
Dont isolate! Support for bipolar disorder starts close to home. Its important to have people you can count on to help you through rough times. Isolation and loneliness can cause depression, so regular contact with supportive friends and family members is therapeutic in itself. Reaching out to others is not a sign of weakness and it wont make you a burden. Support for bipolar disorder starts close to home. Your loved ones care about you and want to help. In order to manage bipolar disorder, its essential that you have people you can count on to help you through rough times.
Join a bipolar disorder support group. Spending time with people who know what youre going through and can honestly say theyve been there can be very therapeutic. You can also benefit from the shared experiences and advice of the group members.
10 tips for reaching out and building relationships
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Risk Factors For Bipolar Disorder And Schizophrenia
No one knows what causes bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. However, genetics are probably a risk factor, as both conditions likely run in families. This doesnt mean that youll definitely inherit the disorder if your parent or sibling has it. Your risk increases, however, if multiple family members have the disorder. But knowing theres a risk increases the chance of early detection and treatment.
Environmental factors may also contribute to your risk, but this connection isnt entirely understood yet.
How Can Caregivers Help Individuals Who Have Serious Mental Illness
Family members and caregivers often play a large role in helping and supporting a loved one who has serious mental illness . A 2016 study by the National Alliance for Caregiving, in partnership with Mental Health America and the National Alliance on Mental Illness, estimated that more than 8 million Americans provide care to an adult with an emotional or mental health issue, mainly related to SMI.7The term caregiver may also extend beyond an individuals family. This includes friends, teachers, neighbors, coworkers and others in the community. Hence, the term caregiver can refer to anyone who gives emotional, financial, or practical support to a person with SMI.
Caregivers can help loved ones who have SMI in many ways. Yet it is often a learning process, as every person with a mental health condition experiences it in a slightly different way. Caregivers may:
The 2016 study also highlights some of the challenges that caregivers may face. Four in 10 caregivers struggled to find an accurate diagnosis for their loved one. Families reported that it took 11.8 years, on average, for their loved one to receive an accurate diagnosis. Caregivers noted several barriers to accessing health care services and long-term services and supports. This includes day programs, peer support, case managers, inpatient treatment centers, and low availability of services in rural areas.
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Key Points About Mood Disorders
A mood disorder is a mental health class that health professionals use to broadly describe all types of depression and bipolar disorders.
The most common types of mood disorders are major depression, dysthymia , bipolar disorder, mood disorder due to a general medical condition, and substance-induced mood disorder.
There is no clear cause of mood disorders. Healthcare providers think they are a result of chemical imbalances in the brain. Some types of mood disorders seem to run in families, but no genes have yet been linked to them.
In general, nearly everyone with a mood disorder has ongoing feelings of sadness, and may feel helpless, hopeless, and irritable. Without treatment, symptoms can last for weeks, months, or years, and can impact quality of life.
Depression is most often treated with medicine, psychotherapy or cognitive behavioral therapy, family therapy, or a combination of medicine and therapy. In some cases, other therapies, such as electroconvulsive therapy and transcranial stimulation may be used.
What Is The List Of Disabilities Covered Under Ada
The list of disabilities covered under American with Disabilities Act refers to all the disabilities for which an employee is protected from discrimination by employers. The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, a civil rights law, prohibits employers from discriminating against employees with disabilities.
The American with Disabilities Act helps with employers or other people with disabilities from their job functions. In employment, state and local government, public accommodations, commercial facilities, transportation, and telecommunications, the ADA outlaws discrimination on the basis of disability.
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Which Category Of Disability Has The Highest Incidence
According to the National Center for Education Statistics, the highest is SLD with just over a third of all students nationally.
There are low incidence and high incidence disabilities. My son has several low incidence disabilities, and we have attended conferences just tailored to us. The downfall of low incidence is that youre less likely to find specialists you need. However, with high incidence, there are more students looking for those services and usually not enough providers.
Iep For Autism Vs Emotional Disturbance
I mean the most frequent. Because I see this happening all over the place and its got to stop. And that is-autistic kids being labeled as ED. Because the child is exhibiting behaviors consistent with ED behaviors, they get this label. Even if it is noted elsewhere that the child is autistic. 99.9% of the time the root of the problem is that the childs autism is NOT being properly supported which is leading to behaviors.
Support the autism, and the behaviors will fade.
As I said, this is a common problem, and Ive heard all kinds of bs and reasoning behind it, but it is now a battle I would fight. If a child is not blind, we dont label him blind even if he exhibits similar behaviors to blind kids. So why is it appropriate to move a kid from autism to ED? Its not.
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How To Cope With Bipolar Disorder
No matter how down or out of control you feel, its important to remember that youre not powerless when it comes to bipolar disorder. Beyond the treatment you get from your doctor or therapist, there are many things you can do for yourself to reduce your symptoms and stay on track.
Living well with bipolar disorder requires certain adjustments. Like diabetics who take insulin or recovering alcoholics who avoid drinking, if you have bipolar disorder, its important to make healthy choices for yourself. Making these healthy choices will help you keep your symptoms under control, minimize mood episodes, and take control of your life.
Managing bipolar disorder starts with proper treatment, including medication and therapy. But there is so much more you can do to help yourself on a day-to-day basis. These tips can help you influence the course of your illness, enabling you to take greater control over your symptoms, to stay well longer, and to quickly rebound from any mood episode or relapse.
The Stress Of A Bad Breakup Or Failed Marriage
A number of people with bipolar disorder especially those with a history of severe manic episodes have failed marriages. If youre going through a divorce, working with your therapist through what is often a drawn-out and extremely stressful process can help.
You might consider a durable power of attorney that allows someone else to make major decisions for you, such as financial ones, when you are going through an episode of depression or mania in relation to or during a breakup.
In fact, assigning a durable power of attorney could be useful for anyone who might be experiencing an episode of bipolar disorder.
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The Bipolar Spectrum: Bipolar I
Bipolar disorder is traditionally defined by four main forms:
- In bipolar I disorder, a person has at least one manic episode lasting at least a week. They also has multiple episodes of major depression. Without treatment, the episodes of depression and mania usually repeat over time. Time spent with depressive symptoms, may outnumber time spent with mania symptoms by about 3 to 1.
- In bipolar II disorder, a person has a milder form of mania, called hypomania, lasting several days or longer. Periods of depression, though, outnumber the time spent with symptoms of hypomania by almost 40 to 1 in many people with this form of the disorder. Because hypomania can be mistaken for ordinary happiness or even normal functioning, bipolar II may often be misdiagnosed as depression alone .
- In bipolar disorder not otherwise specified , people have symptoms of mania or hypomania that are too few in number or too short in duration to meet currently accepted definitions of a manic or hypomanic syndrome or episode.
- In cyclothymic disorder , a person has hypomanias that alternate frequently with brief periods of depression. When present, though, the symptoms of depression do not last long enough and involve enough symptoms to define major depression as a full syndrome.
The concept of a bipolar spectrum may include additional subtypes of bipolar disorder that were proposed in the 1980s. Those subtypes include:
Categories Of Psychoactive Drugs
Psychoactive drugs are divided into three categories :
- Depressants slow down the activity of the central nervous system , which reduces a person’s alertness, and also slows down functions such as breathing and heart rate. Examples of depressants are alcohol, heroin, cannabis, the prescription drug group of benzodiazepines and other prescription tranquilisers.
- Stimulants increase the activity of the central nervous system, making the person more alert and aroused. Examples of stimulants are nicotine, caffeine, cocaine, ecstasy and the methamphetamines, speed and ice.
- Hallucinogens make a person see, hear, smell or feel things that aren’t there. Examples of hallucinogens are LSD, magic mushrooms, ecstasy and cannabis.
Some drugs fall into more than one category. For example, cannabis is both a depressant and hallucinogen, while ecstasy is a stimulant and hallucinogen.
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Whats The Outlook For People With Mood Disorders
Mood disorders such as depression and bipolar disorder may recur or be ongoing and therefore may require long-term or lifetime treatment. It is important to take your medications as prescribed. After starting your medications, it may take two to six weeks before you begin to notice a change in your symptoms. Do not stop taking your medication, even if you begin to feel better.
Discuss any concerns you have about changing or stopping medications with your doctor or another health professional. Ask your doctor whether you might need to try a different medication or have the dosage adjusted, if the one you are taking is ineffective or causes unpleasant side effects such as headaches, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea.
Psychotherapy has been shown to be helpful treatment approach and is often used together with medication or brain stimulation therapy. Minor forms of depression can be treated with psychotherapy alone. Brain stimulation therapies are usually tried when other treatment options have not been successful, in people with severe symptoms, and in those who cannot tolerate the side effects of drug therapy. Every therapy has its potential role, as each patient with a mood disorder is unique.
Seek help immediately if you feel suicidal or have thoughts of harming yourself or others.
Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 07/16/2018.
Manic Episode And Bipolar I Disorder
Bipolar I disorder, at one time referred to as manic-depressive disorder, is defined by the occurrence of at least one manic episode, which is a period of abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable mood that is accompanied by increased energy or activity, which results in clinically significant impairment in functioning or the need for hospitalization . The prevalence rate of child/adolescent mania and/or bipolar disorder is extremely rare. In the DSM-5 field trials in the United States and Canada based on child clinical populations , the combined bipolar I and II prevalence was 6 percent using DSM-IV and 5 percent using DSM-5. Bipolar I disorders are characterized by one or more manic episodes or mixed episodes and one or more MDEs bipolar II disorders are characterized by one or more MDEs and at least one hypomanic episode .
The diagnostic criteria for manic episodes have undergone several changes between DSM-IV and DSM-5. Criterion A now requires that mood changes are accompanied by abnormally and persistently goal-directed behavior or energy. Second, wording has been added to clarify that symptoms must represent a noticeable change from usual behavior, and these changes have to be present most of the day, nearly every day during the minimum 1-week duration.
DSM-IV to DSM-5 Bipolar I Disorder Comparison.
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Possible Bipolar Spectrum Conditions
The idea of a broader “bipolar spectrum” involves the idea that people with certain other mental conditions may be in the bipolar spectrum. Mental or behavioral conditions that share some common features with bipolar disorder, and are therefore sometimes included within a possible bipolar spectrum, include:
- Highly recurrent or treatment-resistant depression
- Impulsive disorders
- Eating disorders, such as anorexia and bulimia
- Personality disorders, such as borderline personality disorder
- Childhood behavioral disorders, such asÃ conduct disorder or disruptive mood dysregulation disorder
Researchers are still trying to determine when and how conditions such as these may overlap with bipolar disorder in terms of symptoms, underlying biology, and possible treatment implications.
Tip : Keep Stress To A Minimum
Stress can trigger episodes of mania and depression in people with bipolar disorder, so keeping it under control is extremely important. Know your limits, both at home and at work or school. Dont take on more than you can handle and take time to yourself if youre feeling overwhelmed.
Learn how to relax.Relaxation techniques such as deep breathing, meditation, yoga, and guided imagery can be very effective at reducing stress and keeping you on an even keel. A daily relaxation practice can improve your mood and keep depression at bay.
Make leisure time a priority. Do things for no other reason than that it feels good to do them. Go to a funny movie, take a walk on the beach, listen to music, read a good book, or talk to a friend. Doing things just because they are fun is no indulgence. Play is an emotional and mental health necessity.
Appeal to your senses.Stay calm and energized by appealing to your senses: sight, sound, touch, smell, and taste. Listen to music that lifts your mood, place flowers where you will see and smell them, massage your hands and feet, or sip a warm drink.
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Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome And Shared Psychotic Disorder
The Psychotic Disorders Work Group considered adding attenuated psychosis syndrome as a new diagnosis to DSM-5, but instead decided to place it in Section III as a condition for further study, after field trial data showed that it was not diagnosed reliably by clinicians. Attenuated psychosis syndrome is meant to describe people who show recent onset of modest, psychotic-like symptoms and clinically relevant distress and disability . In addition, the person who experiences the symptoms must recognize them as unusual and experience sufficient distress or disability to seek clinical evaluation. Despite the clear guidance in the DSM-5 that conditions in Section III are not intended for clinical use, this syndrome is not just in Section III, but is also specifically identified in Other Specified Schizophrenic Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorder as one of four examples of alternative presentations of a psychotic disorder where it is labeled other psychotic disorder, attenuated psychosis syndrome .