Its Similar To Other Mental Health Conditions
People with bipolar disorder usually get diagnosed with something else firstdepression and ADHD are some of the most common. Depression is a part of bipolar disorder, and most people are more familiar with what depression looks like than mania. ADHD can also look very similar to bipolar disorder, especially in children.
Once a person discovers they have bipolar disorder, that might replace any previous diagnosisor they might have multiple mental health conditions at once. If you know someone who is being treated for a mental illness, but they still struggle with symptoms of bipolar disorder, its worth considering that there may be more going on.
Bipolar Disorder And Substance Abuse Can Go Hand In Hand
Substance abuse often complicates the diagnosis and treatment of bipolar disorder. Substance abuse is bipolar disorder’s partner in crime. Some studies show that as many as 60% of people with bipolar disorder also abuse drugs or alcohol. Untreated substance abuse can make it virtually impossible to manage the mood symptoms of bipolar disorder if both disorders are present. It can also be hard to make a confident diagnosis of bipolar disorder when someone is actively abusing substances that cause mood swings.
Substances such as alcohol and cocaine can also cloud the picture in bipolar disorder. For example, people high on cocaine can appear manic when they’re actually intoxicated,Ã or have a depression “crash” when the drug wears off. Some people with bipolar disorder use drugs and alcohol as a part of the impulsivity and recklessness of mania. Others may have an independent substance use disorder, which requires its own treatment. Substance abuse may make bipolar episodes more frequent or severe, and medicines used to treat bipolar disorder are usually less effective when someone is using alcohol or illicit drugs.
Seven Classes And The Key Findings That Shaped Them
The seven phenoclasses, as the U-M team has dubbed them, include standard measures doctors already use to diagnose and track the progress of bipolar disorder.
Changes in cognition, which includes thinking, reasoning and emotion processing
Psychological dimensions such as personality and temperament
Measures of behaviors related to substance use or abuse called motivated behaviors
Aspects of the persons life involving family, intimate relationships and traumas
Patterns of sleep and circadian rhythms
Measures of how patients symptoms change over time and respond to treatment
Some of the key findings the U-M team made in the Prechter cohort include:
Although bipolar disorder tends to run in families, the long-term study revealed no one gene explains it, says McInnis, who is the Woodworth Professor of Bipolar Disorder and Depression in the U-M Medical Schools Department of Psychiatry.
If there was a gene with a strong effect like what we see in breast cancer, for instance, we would have found it, he explains. We hope this new framework will provide a new approach to understand this disorder, and other complex diseases, by developing models that can guide a management strategy for clinicians and patients and give researchers consistent variables to measure and assess.
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Do People Of All Ages Get Bipolar Disorder And How Does Bipolar Disorder Manifest Itself At Different Ages
Dr. Igor Galynker answers the question: ‘Can Bipolar Disorder Occur At Any Age?’
— Question: Do people of all ages get bipolar disorder, and how does bipolar disorder manifest itself at different stages of the life cycle?
Answer: Bipolar disorder can start really at any time in your life. It can start in children, in adolescence, in adults and in older adults. And depending on when the illness starts, the symptoms could be different. In children, in the young children, the illness starts slowly.
And, sometimes it involves changes in mood and irritability, and aggression, and changes in attention and difficult behavior. Mood swings can happen several times during the day. In adolescences and in adults, the illness can start either with a manic episode, or with depressed episode. The most common age of onset of the illness, is young adulthood in the late teens and early 20s. Sometimes the illness can start even very late in life, when people are 50 or 60. In elderly people, when bipolar illness starts, it’s usually related with some other brain disorder that may happen at the same time that can be connected to cardiovascular disease or even early dementia.
Whos At Risk For Bipolar Disorder
Bipolar disorder affects about 2.8 percent of adults in the United States, according to the National Institutes of Mental Health. Around 83 percent of those people were severely impaired by the disorder while they rest only experienced moderate impairments.
Men and women experience bipolar disorder at similar rates. It also seems to affect all races and socioeconomic classes at similar rates as well. The disorder can begin at any age, but its most common among young adults. According to the National Comorbidity Survey, 18- to 29-year-olds represent the largest group of people that had bipolar disorder in the past year, with 30- to 44-year-olds being the next highest range.
However, the survey only included people 18 years old or older, so adolescents could have high instances of the disorder. Bipolar disorder can occur in children as young as age 6, although its rare, and its a controversial diagnosis in children. If your child is diagnosed, its wise to continually follow up with your medical professionals and get a second opinion. Its more commonly seen in teens and young adults, and the most common age of onset is 25 years old.
Bipolar disorder also has a strong genetic component. If someone in your family has it, then the risk of you having it go up considerably. You are especially at risk if an immediate family member has it, such as your parents, siblings, or children. However, even if they have it, it doesnt guarantee youll get it. Other risk factors include:
Can Someone With Bipolar Hear Voices
Katie, who has bipolar disorder, describes her experience of hearing voices when she is manic or depressed. Not everyone realises that some sufferers of Bipolar disorder also have psychotic symptoms. These could include delusions, auditory and visual hallucinations. For me, I hear voices.
Signs And Symptoms Of Bipolar Disorder
Bipolar disorder can look very different in different people. The symptoms vary widely in their pattern, severity, and frequency. Some people are more prone to either mania or depression, while others alternate equally between the two types of episodes. Some have frequent mood disruptions, while others experience only a few over a lifetime.
There are four types of mood episodes in bipolar disorder: mania, hypomania, depression, and mixed episodes. Each type of bipolar disorder mood episode has a unique set of symptoms.
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What Is Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder
If a child is prone to severe irritability with explosive outbursts, but the behavior is not episodic, its possible that he may fit the criteria for the new diagnosis, disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, or DMDD. DMDD was added to the list of diagnoses in DSM-5 when it was published in 2013, to identify children with severe mood dysregulation who would previously have been diagnosed with pediatric bipolar disorder. The problem was that children who fit this description often did not go on to develop adult bipolar disorder.
Children with DMDD are prone to outbursts that are out of proportion to the trigger, and are irritable in between outbursts, but this behavior differs from bipolar mania in that it does not alternate with periods of depression or normal mood.
If a child fits the criteria for DMDD, he may still have ADHD, in fact Dr. Carlson estimates that about 75 to 80 percent of children in clinical samples do have ADHD, and treating the ADHD that underpins the explosive behavior may be the most important opportunity to help them. However, emotion dysregulation may be a severe problem with its own burdens leading to emergency room visits and psychiatric hospitalizations. Many children do not respond either to ADHD medications or to mood stabilizing medications. Finding appropriate interventions for these children, Dr. Carlson adds, is a high priority.
Know The Signs And Symptoms Of Bipolar
These symptoms may come before or after a hypomanic episode in bipolar II disorder.
A bipolar disorder diagnosis may be delayed because those closest to the individual didnt realize the behavior indicated a bigger issue or the first diagnosis of another condition was inaccurate. Pregnancy and seasonal affective disorder might be considered as causes for symptoms.
A mental health professional will determine if a manic or depressed episode has previously been experienced, and will also ask about the individuals behaviors and experiences over a course of time. A mood-disorder questionnaire with 13 questions is often used as an important diagnostic tool to assess symptom clusters and to avoid misdiagnosis.
In a survey by the National Depressive and Manic-Depressive Association , 69% of patients with bipolar disorder are misdiagnosed initially and more than one-third remained misdiagnosed for 10 years or more.
As you learn more about the whys, whos, and whats, its important to remember that although bipolar disorder is a lifelong condition, you can manage your mood swings and other symptoms by following a treatment plan. In most cases, bipolar disorder is treated with medications and psychological counseling .
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Whats The Signs Of A Mental Breakdown
feel unable to concentrate difficulty focusing at work, and being easily distracted. be moody feeling low or depression feeling burnt out emotional outbursts of uncontrollable anger, fear, helplessness or crying. feel depersonalised not feeling like themselves or feeling detached from situations.
Causes Of Bipolar Disorder
Both genetic and environmental factors can create vulnerability to bipolar disorder. As a result, the causes vary from person to person. While the disorder can run in families, no one has definitively identified specific genes that create a risk for developing the condition. There is some evidence that advanced paternal age at conception can increase the possibility of new genetic mutations that underlie vulnerability. Imaging studies have suggested that there may be differences in the structure and function of certain brain areas, but no differences have been consistently found.
Life events including various types of childhoodtrauma are thought to play a role in spurring bipolar disorder in those who are already vulnerable to developing the condition. Researchers do know that once bipolar disorder occurs, life events can precipitate its recurrence. Incidents of interpersonal difficulty and abuse are most commonly associated with triggering the disorder.
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What Causes Bipolar Disorder
The cause of bipolar disorder isnt clear. Research suggests that a combination of different things can make it more likely that you will develop bipolar disorder.
There is a 13% chance you will develop bipolar disorder if someone in your immediate family, like a parent, brother or sister has bipolar disorder.
This risk is higher if both of your parents have the condition or if your twin has the condition.
Researchers havent found the exact genes that cause bipolar disorder. But different genes have been linked to the development of bipolar disorder.
Brain chemical imbalance
Different chemicals in your brain affect your mood and behaviour. Too much or too little of these chemicals could lead to you developing mania or depression.
Stressful life events can trigger symptoms of bipolar disorder. Such as childhood abuse or the loss of a loved one. They can increase your chances of developing depressive episodes.
You can find more information about Does mental illness run in families? by clicking here.
Can Lifestyle Habits Increase The Risk Of Bipolar Disorder
Lack of sleep increases the risk of having an episode of mania in someone with bipolar disorder. In addition, antidepressants, particularly when taken as the only medication, may also trigger a switch into a manic state.
Excessive use of alcohol or drugs can also trigger bipolar symptoms. Research has shown that about 50% of bipolar sufferers have a substance abuse or alcohol problem. Sufferers often use alcohol or drugs in an effort to reduce unpleasant feelings during low mood periods, or as part of the recklessness and impulsivity associated with manic highs.
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What Are The Signs And Symptoms
A person with bipolar disorder will go through episodes of mania and at other times experience episodes of depression . These aren’t the normal periods of happiness and sadness that everyone experiences from time to time. Instead, the episodes are intense or severe mood swings, like a pendulum that keeps arcing higher and higher.
Symptoms of mania include:
- anger, worry, and anxiety
- thoughts of death or suicide
In adults, episodes of mania or depression usually last for weeks or months, although they can be shorter in length. In children and adolescents, though, these episodes can be much shorter, and a kid or teen can even go back and forth between mania and depression throughout the day.
Episodes of mania or depression may happen irregularly and follow an unpredictable pattern or they may be linked, with a manic episode always following a period of depression, or vice versa. Sometimes episodes have a seasonal pattern. Mania in the spring, for example, may be followed by depression in the winter.
Between episodes, someone with bipolar disorder usually returns to normal functioning. For some people, though, there is little or no “break period” between their cycles. These mood swing cycles can change slowly or rapidly, with rapid cycling between mania and depression being much more common in women, children, and adolescents.
How Is Bipolar Disorder Diagnosed
To diagnose bipolar disorder, a doctor or other health care provider may:
- Complete a full physical exam.
- Order medical testing to rule out other illnesses.
- Refer the person for an evaluation by a psychiatrist.
A psychiatrist or other mental health professional diagnoses bipolar disorder based on the symptoms, lifetime course, and experiences of the individual. Some people have bipolar disorder for years before it is diagnosed. This may be because:
- Bipolar disorder has symptoms in common with several other mental health disorders. A doctor may think the person has a different disorder, such as schizophrenia or depression.
- Family and friends may notice the symptoms, but not realize that the symptoms are part of a more significant problem.
- People with bipolar disorder often have other health conditions, which can make it hard for doctors to diagnose bipolar disorder.
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Does Bipolar Disorder Affect Religion And Spirituality
Many individuals with bipolar disorder experience hyper-religiosity during mania. Fifteen to 22 percent of those with bipolar mania in the U.S. experience religious delusions, such as thinking that demons are watching them or that they are Christ reborn.
The complex phenomenon of spirituality involves networks of multiple brain regions. Parts of the parietal lobe are associated with feelings of spiritual transcendence, parts of the temporal and frontal cortices are involved in the storage and retrieval of religious beliefs in memory, and still other parts of the frontal lobe and limbic structures are responsible for rational and emotional aspects of religious beliefs. Dopamine levels in those with bipolar disorder may play a role in elevating religious and spiritual experiences.
A Higher Risk Of Depression
In females with bipolar disorder generally, depressive symptoms are more likely to be dominant. In fact, females with the condition are twice as likely to experience depression as males. Females are also more likely to experience psychosis with depression.
Because depressive symptoms tend to be dominant, females with bipolar disorder often receive an incorrect diagnosis of depression.
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What The Research Says
The researchers found that people who took the anticonvulsants valproate or lamotrigine had better sexual function scores than people who took lithium or a combination of lithium and benzodiazepines.
In comparison with people who took anticonvulsants alone:
- People who took lithium or a combination of lithium and benzodiazepines had worse sexual desire.
- People who took lithium had worse sexual arousal.
- People who took a combination of lithium and anticonvulsants, or lithium and benzodiazepines had worse sexual orgasm.
How Does Bipolar Disorder Work
Bipolar disorder is a psychological condition that causes extreme moods that are difficult to regulate. It typically includes depressive and manic episodes with depressive episodes being more common. Bipolar disorder is separated into two subcategories. Bipolar 1 disorder involves at least one manic episode and may or may not involve a major depressive episode. Bipolar 2 disorder involves at least one major depressive episode with no manic episode.
Manic episodes can cause you to feel euphoric, elated, anxious, jumpy, and hungry. It can also cause racing thoughts, the feeling that you dont need sleep, and delusions of grandeur. In severe cases, manic episodes can manifest as psychosis. For instance, you may have the delusion that theres a wide-reaching problem that only you can solve. Another common symptom is poor decision-making. It can cause you to feel so self-assured that you quit your job and start planning a trip around the world.
At some point, your mood begins to drop. You may feel normal for a while, or you may go straight into a depressive state. Depressive episodes are typically more common and longer-lasting than manic phases. It can cause you to feel fatigued, sad, apathetic, hopeless, or worthless. It often comes with sleep problems like insomnia or hypersomnia. You may also have trouble concentrating or making decisions.
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