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What Types Of Bipolar Is There

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What Are The Risks Of Mixed Features During Mood Episodes Of Bipolar Disorder


The most serious risk of mixed features during a manic or depressive episode is suicide. People with bipolar disorder are 10 to 20 times more likely to commit suicide than people without bipolar disorder. Tragically, as many as 10% to 15% of people with bipolar disorder eventually lose their lives to suicide.

Evidence shows that during episodes with mixed features, people may be at even higher risk for suicide than people in episodes of bipolar depression.

Treatment reduces the likelihood of serious depression and suicide. Lithium in particular, taken long term, may help to reduce the risk of suicide.

People with bipolar disorder are also at higher risk for substance abuse. Nearly 60% of people with bipolar disorder abuse drugs or alcohol. Substance abuse is associated with more severe or poorly controlled bipolar disorder.

What Are The Symptoms Of Cyclothymia

In cyclothymia, moods fluctuate from mild depression to hypomania and back again. In most people, the pattern is irregular and unpredictable. Hypomania or depression can last for days or weeks. In between up and down moods, a person might have normal moods for more than a month — or may cycle continuously from hypomanic to depressed, with no normal period in between.

Compared with more serious mood disorders, the mood symptoms of cyclothymia are mild. Depressive symptoms in cyclothymic disorder never reach the criteria for major depression. Elevated mood never reaches the definition for mania.

Cyclothymia can straddle the line between mental illness and normal variations in mood and personality. Some people with mild symptoms are highly successful in life, driven by their hypomania to express individual talents. On the other hand, chronic depression and irritability can ruin marriages and professional relationships.

Bipolar Disorder Type Ii

Bipolar disorder type II is very similar to type I except that people with type II dont experience the full high of a mania, rather, they experience a somewhat less elevated mood known as hypomania . Mania and hypomania both have the same symptoms but with hypomania being less severe. People with bipolar disorder type II experience the same types of depressions but do not experience psychosis. Bipolar type II also may contain euthymic periods, where there are few-to-no symptoms.

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Potential Causes And Risk Factors

Experts do not know exactly what causes bipolar disorder, although they believe that several factors play a role. These include:

  • Genetics. People with bipolar disorder seem to have variations in genes that may have increased their risk of developing the condition. However, it is unclear exactly how these variations lead to the onset of the disorder.
  • Family history. If a sibling or parent has bipolar disorder, a person is more likely to develop it themselves.
  • Environmental factors. Experiencing periods of high stress, such as bereavement, can trigger bipolar symptoms. A traumatic head injury or abusing alcohol or drugs may also increase the risk.

Most likely, a combination of heredity and environmental factors plays a role in bipolar development.

Types Of Mania In Bipolar Disorder

Four Types of Bipolar Disorders

Explanation of the different types of mania and how they relate to bipolar psychosis.

Now that you have some basic information about psychosis, this section of the article will explain how psychosis directly relates to mania and depression. But first, Iâd like to recap the different types of bipolar mania as this is what makes bipolar psychosis so complicated and often difficult to treat.

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What Are The Treatments For Bipolar Disorder

Treatment can help many people, including those with the most severe forms of bipolar disorder. The main treatments for bipolar disorder include medicines, psychotherapy, or both:

Bipolar disorder is a lifelong illness. But long-term, ongoing treatment can help manage your symptoms and enable you to live a healthy, successful life.

NIH: National Institute of Mental Health

Other Terms Related To Bipolar Disorder

You may hear people use the terms;rapid cycling,;mixed episode, or;mixed features;to describe an individuals bipolar disorder. These are not separate types of bipolar disorder. They are symptoms that may appear in any type of bipolar disorder.

Rapid cycling;is when a person experiences four or more episodes of mania or depression in one year. Rapid cycling may occur in any kind of bipolar disorder and may come and go throughout the course of ones life.

Its also possible to experience mania and depression at the same time. This is called a mixed episode, or an episode with mixed features.

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What Is Bipolar 2

Bipolar 2, or bipolar II, is a type of bipolar characterized by major depressive and hypomanic episodes. Unlike with bipolar 1, people who live with bipolar 2 do not have fully manic episodes. Instead, they experience hypomania.;

Bipolar 2 also has several specifications, such as with atypical features, catatonia, or peripartum onset.;

Do People With Bipolar Disorder Know They Have The Condition Before Getting Diagnosed

4 Types of Bipolar Disorder (2019)

Sometimes. For example, Ayetoro had suspicions for years before officially being diagnosed in 2014.

I experienced what I thought were abnormal swings in mood from very high energy to very low energy for a very long time before. My moods would get so low that I was spending unusual amounts of time in bed depressed, she recalls. It was strange that this depression would follow periods of extremely high spirits.

She experienced two manic episodes before receiving her diagnosis. It was somewhat of a relief to put a name to what was with me, but then began the hard road to stability.

On the other hand, Howard was surprised to receive a diagnosis of bipolar I with psychosis at age 25. As for what made me believe I may have had an illness literally nothing. I was tricked into going to the hospital. Up until the moment I was admitted, I thought everything was normal. It was quite the shock.

Who would I be without bipolar disorder? Id love to find out, he adds. But harnessing my mind and using it to the best of my ability has been my lifes work.

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Signs And Symptoms Of Mania

  • Increased confidence or overconfidence, euphoria
  • Feeling energised to the point of losing control, wired
  • Engaging in risky behaviours
  • Grandiose or excessive acts, such as spending sprees or exaggerated claims
  • Reduced need for sleep or rest
  • Increased need to be active and social

Most people with a bipolar disorder will exhibit signs in their teens and early twenties, and nearly everyone will develop it before the age of 50. People who have an immediate family member with bipolar disorder have a greater chance of developing it themselves.

What Is Bipolar I

Bipolar I disorder is the most intense type of bipolar. Manic episodes last at least seven days or are often so severe that the person needs to be hospitalized immediately.

The key to recognizing a bipolar I manic episode: Its so extreme that it interferes with a persons day-to-day activities. Despite tremendous efforts, its difficult, if not impossible, to divert someone in a manic state into a more rational one.

The manic state of bipolar I includes any or all of the following symptoms:

Its important to note that if someone is talking nonsense or acting oddly because of alcohol or drugs , its not considered a manic state. That said, someone in a manic state is more likely to use drugs and alcohol to excess, thereby worsening their level of functioning. It can be very challenging to determine which factorsthe bipolar mania or the substance useare primarily to blame for the persons problems..

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What Treatment Options Are Available

Finding out youre bipolar can be seen as a positive thing. A proper diagnosis allows you to begin seeking the help and treatment you need. Because bipolar disorder is treatable, just like any other mental health condition, finding the right help from the right mental health professional is critical.

A bipolar disorder diagnosis doesnt always have to be scary. If youre ready to start looking at bipolar disorder treatment options, your doctor, therapist, or psychiatrist might recommend any of the following as good places to start.

Beyond Treatment: Things You Can Do

How to understand bipolar disorder

Regular Exercise: Regular aerobic exercise, such as jogging, brisk walking, swimming, or bicycling, helps with depression and anxiety, promotes better sleep, and is healthy for your heart and brain. There is also some evidence that anaerobic exercise such as weightlifting, yoga, and Pilates can be helpful. Check with your health care provider before you start a new exercise regimen.

Keeping a Life Chart: Even with proper treatment, mood changes can occur. Treatment is more effective when a patient and health care provider work together and talk openly about concerns and choices. Keeping a life chart that records daily mood symptoms, treatments, sleep patterns, and life events can help patients and health care providers track and treat bipolar disorder over time. Patients can easily share data collected via smartphone apps including self-reports, self- ratings, and activity data with their health care providers and therapists.

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Coping With Bipolar Disorder

Living with bipolar disorder can be challenging, but there are ways to help make it easier for yourself, a friend, or a loved one.

  • Get treatment and stick with itrecovery takes time and its not easy. But treatment is the best way to start feeling better.
  • Keep medical and therapy appointments and talk with the provider about treatment options.
  • Take all medicines as directed.
  • Structure activities: keep a routine for eating and sleeping, and make sure to get enough sleep and exercise.
  • Learn to recognize your mood swings and warning signs, such as decreased sleep.
  • Ask for help when trying to stick with your treatment.
  • Be patient; improvement takes time. Social support helps.
  • Avoid misuse of alcohol and drugs.

Remember: Bipolar disorder is a lifelong illness, but long-term, ongoing treatment can help control symptoms and enable you to live a healthy life.

Difference Between Type 2 And Type 3

Bipolar II disorder has episodes of hypomania and major depression. Bipolar 3 does not reach the level of a major depressive state. It is possible to go from bipolar 3 to 1 or 2 but it doesnt work the other way around.

The emotional highs and lows of bipolar 3 are milder than those in bipolar 2. The hypomania in bipolar 3 doesnt reach the level of bipolar 2. Moreover, none of these disorders gets to a full manic state as with type 1.

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Symptoms Of Manic Episodes

Episodes of mania and hypomania are prevalent features of bipolar disorder. While the signs of mania may at first be a pleasant diversion from the dark depressive episodes, the manic phase can also be destabilizing and self-destructive.

Symptoms include:

  • Racing thoughts and difficulty staying focused, easily distracted
  • Rapid speech
  • Impulsive behaviors, using poor judgment
  • Risky behaviors, such as substance use or sexual promiscuity
  • Psychosis

What Is Rapid Cycling

Lino Linares, DO – What are the different types of bipolar disorder?

Some people with bipolar disorder develop rapid cycling where they experience four or more episodes of mania or depression within a 12-month period. Mood swings can occur very quickly, like a rollercoaster randomly moving from high to low and back again over a period of days or even hours. Rapid cycling can leave you feeling dangerously out of control and most commonly occurs if your bipolar disorder symptoms are not being adequately treated.

The different faces of bipolar disorder

Bipolar I Disorder This is the classic manic-depressive form of the illness, characterized by at least one manic episode or mixed episode. Usuallybut not alwaysBipolar I Disorder also involves at least one episode of depression.

Bipolar II Disorder In Bipolar II disorder, you dont experience full-blown manic episodes. Instead, the illness involves episodes of hypomania and severe depression.

Cyclothymia Cyclothymia is a milder form of bipolar disorder that consists of cyclical mood swings. However, the symptoms are less severe than full-blown mania or depression.

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Major Depressive Episode Symptoms

The third symptom of bipolar disorder is depression, which can severely impact a persons daily life. A person is experiencing a major depressive episode if they are experiencing five or more of the following symptoms:

  • Severe loss of interest or feeling no pleasure in normal activities;
  • Noticeable weight loss when not trying to lose weight, weight gain, or changes in appetite;
  • Feeling sad, empty, hopeless, or teary all the time. In children/teens, this depressed mood can present as irritability;
  • Sleeping too much or not being able to sleep, as with insomnia
  • Having less energy or always feeling tired;
  • Feeling worthless or overly guilty;
  • Struggling to concentrate or make decisions;
  • Feeling suicidal or having suicidal thoughts
Are you in a crisis?

While bipolar disorder can cause a person to feel depressed, this condition is not the same as getting diagnosed with depression. Bipolar disorder is marked by periods of two extremes: Mania or hypomania, the up, and major depressive episodes, the down. In contrast, depression causes moods and emotions that are always down without any moments of high energy.

How Is Bipolar Disorder Diagnosed

A psychiatrist or other mental health professional typically diagnoses bipolar disorder. The diagnosis will include a review of both your medical history and any symptoms you have that are related to mania and depression. A trained professional will know what questions to ask.

It can be very helpful to bring a spouse or close friend with you during the doctors visit. They may be able to answer questions about your behavior that you may not be able to answer easily or accurately.

If you have symptoms that seem like bipolar 1 or bipolar 2, you can always start by telling your doctor. Your doctor may refer you to a mental health specialist if your symptoms appear serious enough.

A blood test may also be part of the diagnostic process. There are no markers for bipolar disorder in the blood, but a blood test and a comprehensive physical exam may help rule out other possible causes for your behavior.

Doctors usually treat bipolar disorder with a combination of medications and psychotherapy.

Mood stabilizers are often the first drugs used in treatment. You may take these for a long time.

Lithium has been a widely used mood stabilizer for many years. It does have several potential side effects. These include low thyroid function, joint pain, and indigestion. It also requires blood tests to monitor therapeutic levels of the drug as well as kidney function. Antipsychotics can be used to treat manic episodes.

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Living With Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar disorder patients can learn to cope with this lifelong illness. They must also make every attempt possible to reduce and manage their symptoms.

Common steps involve using medication, going to therapy, and avoiding episodic triggers. The patient can make lifestyle changes such as taking up exercise. They should focus on sleeping well, reducing stress, and avoiding substance abuse.

The preferred medication includes lithium, Carbamazepine, Lamotrigine, and antipsychotic medications such as Olanzapine. Therapies can include psychotherapy, electroconvulsive therapy , and cognitive behavioral therapy .

Preventing childhood abuse or drug misuse may avert the risk of bipolar disorder. Yet, that wont account for the genetic and familial factors. More research is necessary to enhance prevention measures and to improve diagnostic mechanisms.

Is Bipolar Disorder Treatable


Figuring out if you have bipolar disorder is just the first step. The next is learning about how and where to get treatment. The good news is this: bipolar disorder is a treatable condition. Like many other mental health conditions, with the help of experienced and skilled professionals, you can find a way to live a full life after a bipolar disorder diagnosis.;

We feel its important to acknowledge that a bipolar disorder diagnosis can be frightening, especially at the beginning of the journey when so much is unknown. Its also important for you to understand that if left untreated, bipolar disorder can have serious consequences. Its essential to learn more about how you can recognize symptoms so you can focus on how to treat them.

If youre asking yourself, how do I know if I have bipolar disorder, youre well on your way to a positive path toward finding treatment and learning how to move forward. And if youve recently found out that you have bipolar disorder, its time to start the process of beginning to look at bipolar disorder treatment options and learning how to handle bipolar disorder in relationships.

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Type : Cyclothymic Disorder

Cyclothymic disorder consists of cyclical mood swings, but of less severity than those typically found in people living with Bipolar 1 or Bipolar 2. It is not uncommon for people with Cyclothymic Disorder to be dismissed as simply moody, as the symptoms are not as apparent. However, research has shown that those who are living with untreated cyclothymic disorder can develop a more severe type of bipolar disorder. The symptoms of depression tend to be more significant and negatively impactful to peoples lives than symptoms of hypomania, and are generally the reason that some do seek professional treatment.

Bipolar I Vs Bipolar Ii: What Are The Differences

The two most common types are bipolar I and bipolar II. What differentiates them is the intensity of the manic episodes.

The mania for a person with bipolar I is obvious to everyone around them. Its usually so debilitating that the person is unable to function and may even need to be hospitalized.

Mania for bipolar II, called hypomania, is less severe and sometimes even mild enough that the person experiencing it may still be able to function day to day. Occasionally it can even be so subtle that nobody around them notices that anything is significantly off.

Another difference between bipolar I and II: A person with bipolar I may or may not experience a depressive state; in fact, one episode of mania is all thats required for a diagnosis of bipolar I. But if the person does have depressive episodeswhich most dothey usually last at least two weeks.

For a diagnosis of bipolar II, you must have experienced at least one major depressive episode as well as a manic episode.

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