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When Was Bipolar Disorder Discovered

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Toxicity And Side Effect Management

“The Study of Bipolar Disorder is the Study of Humanity”

Medical comorbidities are quite prevalent in patients with bipolar disorder because of the adverse effects of treatment with mood stabilizers, anticonvulsants, antipsychotics, genetic vulnerability, and lifestyle factors . Keeping in mind the burden of these comorbidities and adverse effects of pharmacotherapy, regular monitoring of weight, glycemia, dyslipidemia, blood pressure, and liver function is necessary for patients with bipolar affective disorder.

Blood concentrations of lithium and valproate, when taken by the patient, should be regularly monitored to ensure they are within the therapeutic range. In addition, renal and thyroid function testing is necessary because treatment with lithium is known to be associated with tubulointerstitial nephropathy, hypothyroidism, and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. For patients receiving valproate, the hepatic function should be monitored, and, in women, cases of polycystic ovary disease are known with valproate therapy.

When Did Manic Depression Become Bipolar

Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness that can cause dramatic mood swings, lapses in judgment, and episodes of psychosis. According to the National Alliance on Mental Illness , over six million American adults are living with bipolar disorder, and many of them are not receiving adequate treatment for their symptoms.

Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness that can cause dramatic mood swings, lapses in judgment, and episodes of psychosis. According to the National Alliance on Mental Illness , over six million American adults are living with bipolar disorder, and many of them are not receiving adequate treatment for their symptoms.

Despite its prevalence, bipolar disorder still carries stigma, much of which can be attributed to early understandings of the condition, formerly known as manic depression. But advances in medical research and renewed efforts in building mental health awareness have revolutionized the diagnosis and treatment for bipolar disorder thats available today.

The origin of the term manic depression

Bipolar disorder can trace its earliest roots to the first century, when ancient Greeks and Romans established the opposing terms mania and melancholia to describe the symptoms of mental illness. In modern English, these two words translate to manic and depressive.

The shift to bipolar disorder

Modern definitions of bipolar disorder

  • Bipolar I disorder

  • Bipolar II disorder

  • Cyclothymic disorder

  • Unspecified bipolar disorder

  • Why Is Bipolar Disorder Often Misdiagnosed

    People often struggle with unidentified and untreated bipolar disorder for years. In fact, about two-thirds of people with bipolar disorder are misdiagnosed before bipolar is discovered.

    Most of these individuals are misdiagnosed with depression. When thinking about the difference between the two, patients and clinicians can consider family history due to the genetic roots of the disorder, and personal history of unexplained excitability and euphoria or rage, self-harm, and suicidality. Antidepressants can trigger mania in some cases itâs critical to monitor if a patient feels more agitated, irritable, aggressive, or hyperactive after beginning medication.

    In the case of schizophrenia, manic episodes can include or resemble psychosis, while depressive episodes resemble the negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

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    Can Traumatic Brain Injury Cause Bipolar Disorder

    Some people with traumatic brain injuries âdue to a car accident or a sports injury, for exampleâexperience heightened levels of anxiety, depression, and mood swings. Individuals with a TBI are four times more likely to develop a mental illness, according to a Danish study of more than 100,000 people with head injuries. People with a TBI are 28 percent more likely to develop bipolar disorder, 59 percent more likely to develop depression, and 65 percent more likely to develop schizophrenia.

    Mga Uri Ng Bipolar Disorder

    Bipolar Disorder and Sleep Patterns: Newly

    BIPOLAR ko disorder

    Disorder ako ng Bipolar ay nailalarawan sa pamamagitan ng isang manic episode na sapat na malubhang upang maging sanhi ng minarkahang kapansanan sa pang-araw-araw na pag-andar o humahantong sa pag-ospital upang maiwasan ang pinsala sa sarili o sa iba. Maaaring mangyari din ang mga pangunahing nakakainis na mga yugto.


    Disorder ng Bipolar II ay nailalarawan sa pamamagitan ng isang pattern ng hypomanic at pangunahing mga nakaka-depress na yugto. Ang episode ng hypomanic ay nauugnay sa isang malinaw na pagbabago sa pang-araw-araw na pag-andar na uncharacteristic ng indibidwal.

    Cyclothymic disorder

    Disorder ng Cyclothymic ay isang banayad na anyo ng sakit na bipolar. Ang Cyclothymic disorder ay nailalarawan sa pamamagitan ng hindi bababa sa 2 taon ng pana-panahong hypomanic at depressive na mga sintomas.

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    What Are The Treatments For Bipolar Disorder

    Bipolar disorder is a long-term illness that requires management throughout a person’s life. People who have numerous episodes of mood changes in a year can be much more difficult to treat. Medication is the primary form of treatment, but the additional use of psychotherapy or “talk” therapy is sometimes recommended to help prevent future episodes.

    There are many drugs available to treat bipolar disorder. Proposed guidelines for treatment options are based on the three main phases of bipolar disorder, which include the acutemanic/mixed mood states, acute major depressive episodes, and finally the continuation/maintenance phase. As a general rule, avoiding antidepressants and taking two mood stabilizers has proven to be an effective strategy for most patients.

    Mood-stabilizing drugs

    Lithium is a mood-stabilizing drug. It has proven helpful in controlling mania and depression and preventing depression and manic episodes. Lithium will reduce symptoms of mania within two weeks of starting therapy, but it may take weeks to months before the condition is completely controlled. Thus other drugs like antipsychotic drugs or antidepressant drugs may also be used to help control symptoms.

    Common side effects of lithium include:

    • Frequent need to urinate
    • Nausea

    The following are signs of a lithium overdose. Call your doctor immediately or go to the nearest emergency room if you experience:

    • Blurred vision
    • Weight gain
    • Slight trembling of hands

    Atypical neuroleptics

    Types And Causes Of Bipolar Disorder

    There are two different types of bipolar disorder. People with bipolar disorder I have severe manic episodes, whereas those with bipolar disorder II experience milder episodes.

    Bipolar disorder tends to run in families, and research suggests that certain genes may increase the risk. The condition is usually diagnosed before age 25, although some people experience symptoms for the first time later in life.

    Some people with bipolar disorder also have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, which usually develops before bipolar disorder. Other psychological conditions, including anxiety disorders, may accompany bipolar disorder.

    It can be difficult to distinguish between depressive episodes that occur due to regular, or unipolar, depression, and those that occur due to bipolar disorder. NYU Langone is home to nationally renowned psychiatrists who specialize in identifying bipolar disorder. A correct diagnosis is essential to the appropriate management of bipolar disorder. Medications to ease symptoms of unipolar depression can actually trigger manic episodes in people with bipolar disorder.

    To diagnose bipolar disorder, a doctor performs a physical exam, asks about your symptoms, and recommends blood testing to determine if another condition, such as hypothyroidism, is causing your symptoms.

    If the doctor does not find an underlying cause of your symptoms, he or she performs a psychological evaluation.

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    Mendelian And Classical Genetics

    Modern genetics started with Mendels studies of the nature of inheritance in plants. In his paper Versuche über Pflanzenhybriden , presented in 1865 to the Naturforschender Verein in , Mendel traced the inheritance patterns of certain traits in pea plants and described them mathematically. Although this pattern of inheritance could only be observed for a few traits, Mendels work suggested that heredity was particulate, not acquired, and that the inheritance patterns of many traits could be explained through simple rules and ratios.

    The importance of Mendels work did not gain wide understanding until 1900, after his death, when and other scientists rediscovered his research. , a proponent of Mendels work, coined the word genetics in 1905 . Bateson both acted as a mentor and was aided significantly by the work of other scientists from Newnham College at Cambridge, specifically the work of , , and . Bateson popularized the usage of the word genetics to describe the study of inheritance in his inaugural address to the Third International Conference on Plant Hybridization in in 1906.

    Can People With Bipolar Disorder Maintain Creativity On Medication

    Understanding Bipolar Disorder

    The fear of losing oneâs creativity, productivity, and sense of identity can prevent people from seeking help. But neglecting treatment to preserve manic energy often leads to a crash that can threaten every aspect of the personâs well-being.

    A therapist can allay these concerns and redefine creativity. The intense rise of manic energy is sometimes confused for creativity rather than disorganized and reckless output mania can delude the person into believing their skills are greater than they truly are. A therapist can help a patient with bipolar to steadily harness their creative abilities following mood stabilization and develop an organized strategy and timeline to achieve their goals.

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    Living With Bipolar Disorder

    Bipolar disorder can wreak havoc on a person’s goals and relationships. But in conjunction with proper medical care, sufferers can learn coping skills and strategies to keep their lives on track. Bipolar disorder, like many mental illnesses, is sometimes a controversial diagnosis. While most sufferers consider the disorder to be a hardship, some appreciate its role in their lives, and others even link it to greater creative output.While the depression of bipolar disorder is hard to treat, mood swings and recurrences can often be delayed or prevented with a mood stabilizer, on its own or combined with other drugs. Psychotherapy is an important adjunct to pharmacotherapy, especially for dealing with work and relationship problems that typically accompany the disorder. Clinicians are well aware that there is no one-size-fits-all cure: An individual with a first-time manic episode will not be the same as an individual who has lived with bipolar for a decade.

    Historical And Contemporary Conceptualization Of Bipolar Disorder In Children And Adolescents

    Diagnostic criteria and prevalence rates for bipolar disorder in children and adolescents are controversial. The ambiguity of this diagnosis in development has its roots in quandaries focused on to what extent bipolar disorder is a spectrum with a range of symptoms on the border of psychosis to normal behaviors, characterizing episodes of depression with fluctuations in mood that reliably identify periods of hypomania or mania, differentiating mood episodes from longstanding temperamental traits, differentiating primary symptoms from the effects of psychotropic medications or substances of abuse, developmental shifts in phenotypic symptom presentations, and differentiating mood disorders from other childhood disorders . These diagnostic predicaments have been pondered for almost a century .

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    The Experiments Of John Cade

    As in many other events in biomedical research, chance played an important role in the introduction of lithium into the psychopharmacological arsenal . Thanks to the careful observation of Australian psychiatrist John F. Cade , who in 1949 was Senior Medical Officer, in the Victorian Department of Mental Hygiene of Australia , he noted how patients with thyroid endocrine diseases presented themselves symptoms that were similar to the clinical manifestations of manic-depressive disorder, so that individuals with hyperthyroidism experienced symptoms similar to those seen in individuals in the manic phase, while the traits of thyroid hypofunction were resembling those of the depressive phase .

    John Frederick Cade , authentic pioneer of modern psychopharmacology with his experiments on lithium.

    The kitchen at Bundoora Repatriation Mental Hospital where John Cade conducted some of his lithium experiments.

    Laboratory notes by Cade regarding the effects of the injection of different compounds and lithium salts to guinea pigs.

    Medical Journal of Australia, Volume 3, September 1949, in which the results of the clinical experiments by John Cade about lithium salts and the handling of hectic manic and schizophrenic patients were published .

    Chemical Signature Of Manic Depression Discovered

    Psychiatry Update: Parental History, Pediatric Bipolar ...
    Imperial College London
    People with manic depression have a distinct chemical signature in their brains, according to a new study. The research may also indicate how the mood stabilizers used to treat the disorder counteract the changes in the brain that it appears to cause. Manic depression, which is also known as bipolar disorder, is a debilitating psychiatric condition characterised by alternating mania and depression, affecting about one in every hundred people worldwide.

    People with manic depression have a distinct chemical signature in their brains, according to a new study. The research may also indicate how the mood stabilisers used to treat the disorder counteract the changes in the brain that it appears to cause.

    Manic depression, which is also known as bipolar disorder, is a debilitating psychiatric condition characterised by alternating mania and depression, affecting about one in every hundred people worldwide. Although it is known that the condition can be treated relatively effectively using the mood-stabilising drugs lithium and valproic acid, the reasons why these treatments work are poorly understood.

    The authors of the new study,* from Imperial College London, the University of Cambridge, and the National Institutes of Mental Health in the US, hope that their research will enable a better understanding of the condition and of how it can be treated.

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    What Can I Expect After Treatment

    For most people, a good treatment program can stabilize severe moods and provide effective symptom relief. Treatment that is continual has proven more effective in preventing relapses. Those who also have a substance abuse problem may need more specialized treatment.

    Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 01/27/2018.


    How Can People Recognize Bipolar Disorder In Children And Adolescents

    Symptoms in children and teens are similar to those in adults and include the condition’s hallmark mood swings. Children with bipolar disorder undergo extreme changes in mood and behavior, feeling unusually happy and energetic during manic episodes and becoming very sad and less active during depressive episodes. Manic episodes may involve increased energy, distractibility, grandiosity, and inability to sleep while depressive episodes may involve self-harm or suicidal thoughts and gestures, which should be taken seriously.

    One key factor: bipolar is episodic while other disorders are pervasive. For example, bipolar symptoms come and go in mood swings, while disorders like ADHD tend to be more consistent if left untreated.

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    Seven Classes And The Key Findings That Shaped Them

    The seven phenoclasses, as the U-M team has dubbed them, include standard measures doctors already use to diagnose and track the progress of bipolar disorder.

    • Changes in cognition, which includes thinking, reasoning and emotion processing

    • Psychological dimensions such as personality and temperament

    • Measures of behaviors related to substance use or abuse called motivated behaviors

    • Aspects of the persons life involving family, intimate relationships and traumas

    • Patterns of sleep and circadian rhythms

    • Measures of how patients symptoms change over time and respond to treatment

    Some of the key findings the U-M team made in the Prechter cohort include:

    Although bipolar disorder tends to run in families, the long-term study revealed no one gene explains it, says McInnis, who is the Woodworth Professor of Bipolar Disorder and Depression in the U-M Medical Schools Department of Psychiatry.

    If there was a gene with a strong effect like what we see in breast cancer, for instance, we would have found it, he explains. We hope this new framework will provide a new approach to understand this disorder, and other complex diseases, by developing models that can guide a management strategy for clinicians and patients and give researchers consistent variables to measure and assess.

    Falret And Baillarger: A Cycling Disease

    What is bipolar disorder? – Helen M. Farrell

    From antiquity through to the 19th century, mania and melancholia were considered to be two completely different disorders which embraced a wide variety of psychiatric syndromes. Jean-Pierre Falret created the first concept of a new and separate psychiatric disorder which encompassed both mania and depression and published his description of this disease in 1851, which he termed folie circulaire, a mental disorder characterized by a continuous cycle of depression, mania, and free intervals of varying lengths between these two extremes . His contemporary Jules Baillarger described folie à double forme in which mania and melancholia change into one another but with no requirement for an free interval between the two, in contrast to Falrets description which would include those with a long interval between the two mood states to still receive a diagnosis of folie circulaire . These discrepant hypotheses regarding this aspect of cycling, with pauses between mood episodes still regarded as linked shifts between mood states regardless of length, created a rift in understanding when instead they may have been describing two sides of the same coin. Regardless, these competing descriptions spread from France via supporters of either description, and the concept of a cycling mood disease was accepted before the end of the century .

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    What Is Bipolar Disorder

    Bipolar disorder, also called “manic-depressive” disease, is a mental illness that causes people to have high and low moods. People with this illness have periods of feeling overly happy and joyful or of feeling very sad or feeling normal. Because of the highs and the lows or two poles of mood the condition is referred to as “bipolar disorder. However, patients moods may not necessarily follow a cyclic pattern, and sometimes the highs and lows can be experienced at the same time . The hallmark of bipolar illness is the occurrence of the manic episode. In fact, by definition, to meet the criteria for bipolar disorder, patients must have at least one manic episode in their lifetime with or without ever experiencing a depressive episode.

    The word hypomania or manic describes the periods when the person feels overly excited and confident. These feelings can quickly turn to confusion, irritability, anger, and even rage. The word depressive describes the periods when the person feels very sad or depressed. Because the symptoms are similar, sometimes people with bipolar depression are incorrectly diagnosed as having major depression. This is why it is especially important to screen for mania.

    Most individuals with bipolar disorder spend three times the amount of time in depressed phases than in manic phases.

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