Wednesday, July 24, 2024

Which Of The Following Statements Is True Of Schizophrenia

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Popular books and movies often depict people with schizophrenia and other mental illnesses as dangerous and violent. This usually isnât true. Most people with schizophrenia are not violent. More typically, they prefer to withdraw and be left alone. When people with mental illness do take part in dangerous or violent behaviors, itâs generally a result of their psychosis and the fear that theyâre being threatened in some way by their surroundings. Drug or alcohol use can make it worse.

On the other hand, people with schizophrenia can be a danger to themselves. Suicide is the top cause of premature death among people with schizophrenia.

Which Of The Following Statements Is True Regarding The Cognitive Deficits Associated With Schizo

Which of the following statements is true regarding the cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia? a. Cognitive deficits are solely an outcome of schizophrenia b. Cognitive deficits act at both a risk factor and an outcome of schizophrenia c. Cognitive deficits are solely a risk factor for schizophrenia d. Cognitive deficits are neither a risk factor or an outcome of schizophrenia

Negative Symptoms Of Schizophrenia

The word “negative” here doesnât mean “bad.” It notes the absence of normal behaviors in people with schizophrenia. Negative symptoms of schizophrenia include:

  • Lack of emotion or a limited range of emotions
  • Withdrawal from family, friends, and social activities
  • Less energy
  • Loss of pleasure or interest in life
  • Poor hygiene and grooming habits

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Rating Scales For Catatonia

Using a rating scale helps to identify people who have catatonia that might otherwise not have been diagnosed .

The BushFrancis Catatonia Rating Scale appears to be the most widely used instrument for catatonia. The BFCRS has 23 items, and there is also a shorter, 14-item screening version. The reliability and validity of the BFCRS has been established . Reference Ungvari, Leung and NgUngvari et al reported that using the BFCRS, 32% of 225 patients with chronic schizophrenia met the criteria for catatonia. Their study adds strength to the view that catatonia is still not uncommon and that its incidence is grossly underestimated.

Another catatonia rating scale, the Modified Rogers Scale , has also been validated . The MRS rates abnormalities in movement, volition, speech and overall behaviour, and also aids in the distinction of catatonic signs from seemingly similar extrapyramidal side-effects .

Reference Peralta and CuestaPeralta & Cuesta have postulated that the presence of three or more of the following 11 signs constitutes a diagnosis of catatonic syndrome: immobility/stupor, mutism, negativism, oppositionism, posturing, catalepsy, automatic obedience, echophenomena, rigidity, verbigeration and withdrawal.

What Are The Early Symptoms Of Schizophrenia

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The condition usually shows its first signs in men in their late teens or early 20s. It mostly affects women in their early 20s and 30s. The period when symptoms first start and before full psychosis is called the prodromal period. It can last days, weeks, or even years. It can be hard to spot because thereâs usually no specific trigger. You might only notice subtle behavioral changes, especially in teens. This includes:

  • A change in grades
  • Difficulty sleeping

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Myth: Mental Health Problems Don’t Affect Me

Fact: Mental health problems are actually very common. In 2014, about:

  • One in five American adults experienced a mental health issue
  • One in 10 young people experienced a period of major depression
  • One in 25 Americans lived with a serious mental illness, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depression

Suicide is the 10th leading cause of death in the United States. It accounts for the loss of more than 41,000 American lives each year, more than double the number of lives lost to homicide. Learn more about mental health problems.

Articles On Schizophrenia Overview

Schizophrenia is a chronic, severe mental disorder that affects the way a person thinks, acts, expresses emotions, perceives reality, and relates to others. Though schizophrenia isnât as common as other major mental illnesses, it can be the most chronic and disabling.

People with schizophrenia often have problems doing well in society, at work, at school, and in relationships. They might feel frightened and withdrawn, and could appear to have lost touch with reality. This lifelong disease canât be cured but can be controlled with proper treatment.

Contrary to popular belief, schizophrenia is not a split or multiple personality. Schizophrenia involves a psychosis, a type of mental illness in which a person canât tell whatâs real from whatâs imagined. At times, people with psychotic disorders lose touch with reality. The world may seem like a jumble of confusing thoughts, images, and sounds. Their behavior may be very strange and even shocking. A sudden change in personality and behavior, which happens when people who have it lose touch with reality, is called a psychotic episode.

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Fast Five Quiz: Schizophrenia Differential Diagnosis

Stephen Soreff, MD

Delusions are fixed false beliefs or ideas. They commonly take one of two forms: grandiose or paranoid. In the grandiose type, the patient may think he or she is a god or president of a country. People with schizophrenia have the paranoid type of delusions.

In delusional disorder, a person has a variety of paranoid beliefs, but these beliefs are not bizarre and are not accompanied by any other symptoms of schizophrenia. For example, a person who is functioning well at work but becomes unreasonably convinced that his or her spouse is having an affair has a delusional disorder rather than schizophrenia. Delusional disorder is an illness characterized by at least 1 month of delusions but no other psychotic symptoms.

Delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, disorganized or catatonic behavior, or negative symptoms are some of the criteria for diagnosis of schizophrenia. Persons with delusional disorder have a variety of paranoid and delusional beliefs, but none of the psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia.

Difficulty and lack of interest in forming close relationships with others and a preference for solitary activities are typical characteristics of schizoid personality disorder . No other symptoms of schizophrenia are present.

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What Are The Symptoms Of Schizophreniform Disorder

Symptoms of schizophreniform disorder are similar to those of schizophrenia and might include the following:

  • Delusions .
  • Hallucinations .
  • Disorganized speech, such as: your statements not making sense, using nonsense words and skipping quickly from one topic to another.
  • Odd or strange behavior such as: pacing, walking in circles and writing constantly.
  • Other symptoms, including: limited emotional expression, lack of energy, poor hygiene and grooming habits, loss of interest or pleasure in life and withdrawal from family, friends and social activities.

Can I Live A Normal Life With Schizophreniform Disorder

Schizophreniform disorder can be extremely disruptive. It messes up how you think, act, express emotions, perceive reality and relate to others. This causes problems with relationships, employment and other aspects of normal life.

Some individuals with schizophreniform who have worked in the past find it easier to return to employment. If youve never worked, it might be helpful to do some volunteering for charity to see if a certain job appeals to you. To help make your choice consider questions like the following: Are you good with a hammer? Would you rather sit behind a desk inside or work in a park outside? Do you prefer to work independently or in a group? Figure out what you can and cant do with your disorder. Do your best to preserve the life you had before, while learning to accept the challenges you face now.

Some patients may need to be hospitalized. It may be necessary for your safety and the safety of others.

Many schizophreniform disorder patients engage in substance abuse. Such a decision will not help treat the symptoms of this disorder and can worsen your quality of life even more, making it harder to recover.

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Positive Symptoms Of Schizophrenia

In this case, the word positive doesnât mean good. It refers to added thoughts or actions that arenât based in reality. Theyâre sometimes called psychotic symptoms and can include:

  • Delusions: These are false, mixed, and sometimes strange beliefs that arenât based in reality and that the person refuses to give up, even when shown the facts. For example, a person with delusions may believe that people can hear their thoughts, that they are God or the devil, or that people are putting thoughts into their head or plotting against them.
  • Hallucinations: These involve sensations that aren’t real. Hearing voices is the most common hallucination in people with schizophrenia. The voices may comment on the person’s behavior, insult them, or give commands. Less common types include seeing things that aren’t there, smelling strange odors, having a funny taste in your mouth, and feeling sensations on your skin even though nothing is touching your body.
  • Catatonia: In this condition, the person may stop speaking, and their body may be fixed in a single position for a very long time.

Catatonia And Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

Thesis Statement For A Research Paper On Schizophrenia ...

Reference FinkFink has suggested that, on the basis of the similarity of signs, symptoms and response to treatment, malignant catatonia and neuroleptic malignant syndrome should be considered to be the same disorder. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome may be conceptualised as an antipsychotic-induced form of lethal catatonia .

However, others stress the distinction between the two disorders. Reference Castillo, Rubin and Holsboer-TrachslerCastillo et al have highlighted an important clinical difference between lethal catatonia and neuroleptic malignant syndrome, in that the former typically begins with extreme psychotic excitement whereas the latter characteristically starts with severe extrapyramidal muscular rigidity.

Nevertheless, there is general agreement that catatonia represents a highly significant risk factor for subsequent neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Reference White and RobinsWhite & Robins reported that in a series of five consecutive cases of neuroleptic malignant syndrome, all were preceded by a catatonic state. Similarly, Reference Raja, Altavista and CavallariRaja et al reported that, in their sample of three patients with neuroleptic malignant syndrome, all had shown catatonia just before the onset of the syndrome and had been treated with only low doses of antipsychotics.

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What Questions Should I Ask My Healthcare Provider About Schizophreniform Disorder

  • Do I have schizophreniform disorder or schizophrenia?
  • How long do you estimate my symptoms will last?
  • What specialist should I see?
  • Can I attend work/school?
  • Do I need to be hospitalized?
  • Do I have another mental health disorder such as depression?
  • What medications do you recommend?

A note from Cleveland Clinic

Schizophreniform disorder can be devastating. It can make you act in odd ways, think inconsistent thoughts, change topics too quickly when you speak, express emotions inconsistently, change your relationships with others and damage how you see and interact with reality. It can be scary to experience, but fortunately, some specialists and treatments may help.

Remember to trust your friends and family and any healthcare provider youre working with. What you perceive as reality may not be true, so try to listen when they correct you. Take your medications exactly as ordered. See your healthcare providers frequently to ensure the best care. Manage depression symptoms that may occur and avoid substance abuse to improve your overall quality of life.

This Problem Has Been Solved

Which of the following statements is true aboutschizophrenia?

a. People throughout the world suffer fromschizophrenia

b. The symptoms associated with schizophrenia are the sameacross cultures

c. Schizophrenia is not included in the Diagnosticand Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition

d. People with schizophrenia have enlarged hippocampi

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What Is The Outlook For People With Schizophrenia

With proper treatment, most people with schizophrenia can lead productive and fulfilling lives. Depending on how severe the condition is and how well they get and stick with treatment, they should be able to live with their families or in community settings rather than in long-term psychiatric hospitals.

Ongoing research on the brain and how brain disorders happen will likely lead to more effective medicines with fewer side effects.

Myth: People With Mental Health Needs Even Those Who Are Managing Their Mental Illness Cannot Tolerate The Stress Of Holding Down A Job

The Daily Debrief: Aaron Keller Linda Kenney Baden & Brian Buckmire Discuss the Retracted Statements

Fact: People with mental health problems are just as productive as other employees. Employers who hire people with mental health problems report good attendance and punctuality as well as motivation, good work, and job tenure on par with or greater than other employees.

When employees with mental health problems receive effective treatment, it can result in:

  • Lower total medical costs

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Differential Diagnoses Of Catatonia

Although traditionally linked to schizophrenia, catatonia is more commonly associated with mood disorders . For example, Reference Abrams and TaylorAbrams & Taylor recorded that, in a sample of 55 people with catatonia, only four had schizophrenia and more than two-thirds had affective disorders, especially mania. Similarly, Reference Barnes, Saunders and WallsBarnes et al reported only one person with schizophrenia in their sample of 25, but nine with affective disorders.

Temporal lobe epilepsy is a recognised cause of catatonia .

Catatonia is a potential risk of abrupt discontinuation of clozapine, and is reversible by reinstatement of the drug .

Immobility seen in advanced dementia might reflect a catatonic state seen in other serious organic disorders, and may respond to lorazepam .

There have been case reports suggesting that patients with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura may be at higher risk of developing catatonia .

Metabolic abnormalities such as hyponatraemia may cause catatonia , and people with rare metabolic disorders such as Wilson’s disease and Tay-Sachs disease may also present with the condition.

Prior brain injury and physical illness at onset of psychosis are more common in patients who subsequently develop catatonia than in those who do not . A history of severe infectious disease in childhood, including rheumatic fever, is associated with an increased risk of catatonia in adult life .

The differential diagnoses of catatonia are summarised in Box 2.

How Is Schizophrenia Treated

The goal of schizophrenia treatment is to ease the symptoms and to cut the chances of a relapse, or return of symptoms. Treatment for schizophrenia may include:

  • Medications: The primary medications used to treat schizophrenia are called antipsychotics. These drugs donât cure schizophrenia but help relieve the most troubling symptoms, including delusions, hallucinations, and thinking problems.
  • Older antipsychotic medications used include:
  • Ziprasidone
  • Note: Clozapine is the only FDA-approved medication for treating schizophrenia that is resistant to other treatments. Itâs also used to lessen suicidal behaviors in those with schizophrenia who are at risk.

  • Hospitalization: Many people with schizophrenia may be treated as outpatients. But hospitalization may be the best option for people:
  • With severe symptoms
  • Who might harm themselves or others
  • Who canât take care of themselves at home
  • Research: Researchers are looking at a procedure called deep brain stimulation to treat schizophrenia. Doctors surgically implant electrodes that stimulate certain brain areas believed to control thinking and perception. DBS is an established treatment for severe Parkinson’s disease and essential tremor, but itâs still experimental for the treatment of psychiatric disorders.
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    How Is Schizophreniform Disorder Treated

    The goal of treatment for schizophreniform disorder is to protect and stabilize you and relieve your symptoms. Treatment generally consists of medication and psychotherapy . People with severe symptoms or who are at risk of hurting themselves or others might need to be in the hospital until their condition is stabilized.

    Medication The primary medications used to treat the psychotic symptoms of schizophreniform disorder such as delusions, hallucinations and disordered thinking are called anti-psychotics. A group of newer medicines, called atypical antipsychotics, are most commonly used. These include:

    • Risperidone .
    • Asenapine .
    • Lurasidone .

    Psychotherapy The goal of therapy is to help your learn about the illness, establish goals and manage everyday problems related to the disorder. It also can help you manage the feelings of distress associated with the symptoms and challenge thoughts that might not be based in reality. Family therapy can help families deal more effectively with a loved one who has schizophreniform disorder, enabling them to contribute to a better outcome.

    After your symptoms improve, you should continue treatment for 12 months. This includes gradually reducing the dosage of medication and carefully monitoring for signs of relapse . Also, its important to educate yourself and your family to help them cope with your illness and detect early signs of relapse.

    Disorganized Symptoms Of Schizophrenia

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    These are positive symptoms that show that the person canât think clearly or respond as expected. Examples include:

    • Talking in sentences that donât make sense or using nonsense words, making it difficult for the person to communicate or hold a conversation
    • Shifting quickly from one thought to the next without obvious or logical connections between them
    • Moving slowly
    • Being unable to make decisions
    • Writing excessively but without meaning
    • Forgetting or losing things
    • Repeating movements or gestures, like pacing or walking in circles
    • Having problems making sense of everyday sights, sounds, and feelings

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