Interactions Between Childhood Trauma And Later Stressors In Bd
A two-hits model of susceptibility has been proposed in psychosis, and could show relevance for BD . Briefly, exposure to prenatal or postnatal stressors interacts with genetic factors to prime the brain, which leads to a vulnerability as measured by changes in brain functioning or other biomarkers. Further stressors during adolescence or young adulthood may serve to convert the vulnerability into a disorder. In BD, the interaction between childhood trauma and susceptibility genes may predispose the individual to subtle changes in certain biological and physiopathological processes of the disorder. In this context, cannabis misuse during adolescence or later life events may act in and reveal this susceptibility or increasing the rate of mood recurrences.
Factor Analysis Of Ctq
A three factor solution was found sufficient and similar to the models with five factors. We named them Factor 1 = emotional abuse/neglect-revised, Factor 2 = sexual abuse-revised, and Factor 3 = physical abuse-revised. Factor loadings for the rotated solution are shown in Table .
Table 2 Factor loadings for rotated solution
Significant non linear associations were found between CTQ total score and incidence of psychotic episodes and self harm episodes . Nearly significant non linear associations were found between CTQ total score and incidence of depressive episodes and manic episodes . Even though these associations improved the model fit, none of them were clearly uni directional. A linear association between CTQ total and number of hospitalizations was also observed .
The decomposition of the CTQ score by factor analysis revealed that different factors were associated with different incidence rates. Emotional abuse/neglect-revised factor score was significantly non linearly associated with incidence of manic episodes , and linearly associated with number of hospitalizations . The sexual abuse-revised factor score was significantly non linearly associated with incidence of psychotic episodes . The physical abuse-revised factor score was significantly non linearly associated with incidence of depressive episodes , as well as incidences of self harm episodes .
How Do You Identify Dissociative Identity Disorder
They have symptoms that you might have seen depicted in movies like Sybil or TV shows like The United States of Tara.
Sufferers of the disorder have a complex system of dissociation, which Middleton describes as splitting off at different times into different identity states.
The individual might experience this as internal or external voices, which may argue and which may be associated with particular behaviors. Alternative handwritings. A whole spectrum of things, he said.
What Middleton describes is a form of dissociation where the sufferer splits off into what appears to be a completely different personalities. Sufferers usually have at least two distinct personalities at some point in their life, some may have many more.
Middleton says that the majority of sufferers also fulfill criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder, major depression and somatization, while many of them have eating disorders and social phobias.
Typically they present in their thirties, having bounced around the system for quite a while, he said. Because they hear voices theyre given antipsychotics. From our research, about 20 percent of them are diagnosed with bipolar disorder.
If you look a bit closer they dont have bipolar. That was just someone identifying them switching between different personality states.
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Risk Factors For Bipolar Disorder
There are many risk factors for bipolar disorder and other mental illnesses but the biggest risk factor for bipolar disorder is likely genetics. I would say its far more relevant that my father had bipolar disorder than whatever childhood I might have had. If you have a parent with bipolar disorder you have a 50% chance of having a serious mental illness and identical twin studies demonstrate a 33-90% concordance for bipolar I. Even adopted children raised in households without mentally ill parents show an increased risk of bipolar disorder when their biological parent has bipolar I or a depressive disorder.
Of course, this indicates that there is more than biology at work in bipolar disorder.
And we knew that. Its true that life traumas can increase your risk of having bipolar disorder but to say that bipolar disorder is just a symptom of childhood abuse is ludicrous.
What We Get Wrong About Trauma
Originating in the medical sciences, where it referred to physical injury, the term trauma is now often used in popular and scholarly discussion to refer to psychological injury. While large-scale mental health surveys consistently find sexual assault is a major risk factor for traumatic illness, its often assumed pre-existing mental illness is the cause of the allegation itself.
Arguments around the truthfulness of assault claims can hinge on stereotypical portrayals of people living with mental illness as untrustworthy witnesses to their own experience.
The recent sexual assault allegation against Attorney-General Christian Porter, which he has strenuously denied, has been accompanied by relating to memory and the mental health of Porters now deceased accuser. Some journalists have pointed to her mental health status in a manner designed to raise questions about her account, and to suggest her allegation was a post-hoc confabulation.
The complainants bipolar diagnosis, her seeking mental health care, her fragmented journal entries, and her accessing a book on the neuroscience of trauma have been emphasised as evidence she invented her account or was suffering from so-called repressed or recovered memories.
This type of argument reflects longstanding myths that prevail within journalism and the community about trauma, memory and mental illness. Below, we tackle three key misunderstandings.
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The Mental Health Disorder Caused By Incest And Child Abuse
Its the disorder that robs people of their ability to feel whole.
When it comes to the disorder that can splinter people into discrete and fractious personalities, its important to note that this complex disorder is not uncommon.
Dissociative Identity Disorder , formerly known as Multiple Personality Disorder, is often misdiagnosed. For the sufferer, the experience can be deeply confusing, with a distorted sense of self and long periods of time lost to dissociation.
Caused by childhood abuse, incest and neglect, the disorder often develops as a coping mechanism. It allows young kids to compartmentalize abuse so they can survive when caregivers or family members make them feel unsafe.
DID is described as a complex form of post-traumatic stress and dissociation, which causes a discontinuity in ones self of self.
Professor Warwick Middleton is a leader in research and treatment on the disorder and has been working in the field for decades. Speaking to News.com.au, he recalls first writing a paper on the condition in 1991.
DID can be categorized as a developmental disorder, where a persons personality fails to integrate as they develop.
Its defined as an identity disruption and you may know it as multiple personality disorder. In some cultures, it may be identified as spiritual or demonic possession.
How Cocaine Affects Bipolar Disorder
Cocaine use is more highly prevalent among people with bipolar disorder compared to the general population. Combining cocaine use with bipolar disorder may amplify the symptoms of the mental condition, make judgment and decision-making difficult and result in reckless behavior.
Cocaine alters dopamine, which is an essential neurotransmitter for communication between the brain and the rest of the body. Dopamine is a critical part of the brains functionality and is linked to processes controlling pleasure and reward, as well as movement.
In many instances, cocaine can also affect the parts of the brain that control memory, new information and emotions. It is thought that most mental conditions, including bipolar disorder, involve imbalances in the dopamine system of the brain. When someone uses cocaine, especially for an extended period of time, symptoms of mental disorders can worsen.
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Risk Factors For The Development Of Bipolar Disorder
Risk factors for developing BD have been refined over the years and cover a range of biological, psychological and environmental markers.62,71 Here, we emphasize biological and psychological risk factors that are linked to CT, namely: emotional difficulties, cognitive deficits, altered neural function, altered circadian neuroendocrine, and immune response markers. It is worth noting that these factors can also be observed in other mental health conditions and may therefore reflect transdiagnostic markers of CT exposure. Risk mechanisms that may determine who develops BD or another mental health condition are not yet fully understood. However, evidence for CT as a risk factor has emerged.
Offspring of parents with a diagnosis of a psychiatric disorder, such as BD, SZ or major depressive disorder , have been identified to be at enhanced risk of developing BD due to increased genetic or familial risk.62 Similarly, the experience of abuse and neglect is positively related to the occurrence and severity of prodromal symptoms in individuals with chronic BD72 or emotional problems of subclinical depressive or anxiety-related symptoms.62 The likelihood of developing BD may be further increased when familial or genetic vulnerability is combined with the exposure to CT. For example, Post et al. reported that such combined risk was significantly associated with an earlier illness onset of BD.73.
Trauma And Bipolar Disorder Arent Mutually Exclusive
Apparent links in media commentary between a bipolar diagnosis and false allegations of sexual assault reflect a misunderstanding of the diagnosis.
People with bipolar disorder experience significant fluctuations in mood, including low depressive states and active manic states. A range of studies have found childhood trauma increases the risk of developing bipolar disorders, and contributes to the severity and complexity of symptoms, including earlier age of onset, and increased suicidal ideation and substance abuse. One clinical study of bipolar patients found they were significantly more likely to report sexual assault in childhood or adulthood than patients with a depressive illness. This evidence suggests sexual assault is a risk factor for developing bipolar, and people with a bipolar diagnosis may be more vulnerable to sexual assault.
Bipolar has been somewhat overlooked in research into the relationship between sexual assault and mental illness, and these findings underscore the need for further exploration.
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Ensuring Continuous Improvement In Understanding The Role Of Childhood Trauma In Developing Bipolar Disorder
Emerging evidence from studies in young people who are at increased risk of developing BD due to family history and/or exposure to CT adds new insights to existing adult studies.48,62,155 Integration of this knowledge into ongoing identification, intervention and treatment programs to support young people who display early-onset, prodromal or clinical symptoms is required. At the same time, postnatal treatment to improve mothers depressive episodes, psychoeducational programs for parents with mood disorders and early interventions for improving cognitive problems in children are highly recommended.48,62,156,157
Whats Bipolar Disorder How Do I Know If I Have It Symptoms Causes Diagnosis Types Treatment
Bipolar disorder is one of the brain disorders that results in abrupt changes in the sufferers energy, mood, and the ability to perform normally. People having the condition of bipolar disorder suffer intense emotional shifts that typically appear during certain periods of days to weeks, known as mood episodes. The mood episodes are either depressive or manic, which are two extremes of emotional state. Also, people with bipolar disorder usually have episodes of neutral mood too. However, people having bipolar disorder can live a full and productive life after getting proper treatment. The statistics visibly indicate that the prevalence of bipolar disorder is not rare like other brain disorders.
Mood changes and fluctuations are common among normal individual too but the mood changes of bipolar disorder patients last longer. Moreover, the mood changes of a normal person do not bring out extreme behaviors that might disrupt the daily routine and cause inability to function normally. Bipolar disorder causes sudden mood shifts along with extreme degree of improper behavior making it hard to interact socially and perform everyday tasks. Bipolar disorder adversely affects the patients relationships with their friends or loved ones by causing difficulties to communicate and behave normally.
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Bipolar Disorder And Cocaine Use
Someone living with bipolar disorder may find it difficult to manage their symptoms and look for ways to cope, even if theyre unhealthy. The symptoms of bipolar disorder can be incredibly challenging and leave a person feeling exhausted. During a low period, a person with bipolar disorder may use stimulants like cocaine to experience increased energy, focus and sociability.
Because stimulants are highly addictive, people who use cocaine as a coping strategy for bipolar disorder symptoms may go on to develop an addiction. Patients have reported that after using cocaine for an extended period, their symptoms worsen instead of improving. For example, instead of feeling pleasure or euphoria after using cocaine, patients reported feeling paranoid or irritated. Some patients even reported that they had suicidal thinking during withdrawal from the stimulant.
Bipolar Disorder and Cocaine Side Effects
There can be adverse effects when someone uses cocaine, including the development or onset of bipolar disorder. These side effects can lead to aggression, hospitalization and a reduced tendency to take medicine as prescribed. The combination of cocaine use and bipolar disorder can compromise many functions of the brain. Some of the most common side effects of cocaine use combined with bipolar disorder include:
- Difficulty with decision-making
- Problems with planning for the future
- Cognition issues
A Note on Crack Cocaine
Aim : Is Abuse Related To Bpsd
Results revealed that more than 30 % of youth with BPSD experienced childhood abuse: 10 % of youth with BPSD experienced sexual abuse only, 9 % experienced physical abuse only, and 11 % experienced both . Rates of overall abuse, physical abuse, and sexual abuse were not significantly different between youths with BPSD versus those without. However, youths with bipolar illness were significantly more likely to have experienced both kinds of abuse together: 11 % versus only 5 % of the youths without a bipolar diagnosis, X2 =6.46, p=0.040.
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Treating Bipolar Disorder And Addiction
Treating co-occurring disorders involves tackling both problems at once. Doctors use medications and therapy to treat these conditions. A person struggling with an addiction and bipolar disorder can get treatment through an inpatient or outpatient rehab.
Medications For Bipolar Disorder And Addiction
Medication can help people with bipolar disorder and addiction. Addiction treatment medications stifle cravings and ease withdrawal symptoms. The type of addiction medication prescribed depends on the patients drug of abuse.
Medications for bipolar disorder can calm mood shifts and bring equilibrium to a persons life. Some medications for bipolar disorder include:
Each of these medications helps with either a manic or depressive episode. Doctors may be careful to prescribe Benzodiazepines because they are addictive. But Benzos may simultaneously help with manic episodes and withdrawal symptoms.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
Cognitive behavioral therapy helps people with addiction and co-occurring bipolar disorder. CBT addresses the thoughts and feelings that people with these conditions face.
Break free from addiction.
Bipolar Disorder And Your Sex Life
In addition to these more general symptoms, however, bipolar disorder can also affect your sex life, leading to a drastically increased libido during periods of mania. Some who experience this heightened sexuality may receive a diagnosis of hypersexuality or sexual addiction, a diagnosis that still carries a lot of controversy within the fields of both psychology and sexuality. There are those who hesitate to pathologize sexuality in this way. After all, it’s difficult to measure how much of a sex drive is too much.
No matter what you choose to call it, however, if these symptoms become disruptive to your life, it’s worth seeking out help.
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Similarities Between Cocaine Use And Bipolar Disorder
The symptoms of cocaine and bipolar disorder can appear similar to one another, so people may incorrectly believe they developed bipolar disorder from using cocaine. However, it is possible that the person may indeed have bipolar disorder and require treatment for both disorders at the same time. Cocaine and bipolar disorder share some of the same symptoms, so it can be difficult to identify the differences between each disorder. Some of the shared symptoms of cocaine use and bipolar disorder may include:
- Increased energy and mental alertness
- Increased recklessness
Bipolar Disorder And False And Displaced Memories
My son was diagnosed at age 12 with ADHD and, at 15, with Bipolar Disorder. He is currently on medication.
First, a little background. I divorced his father, also Bipolar and very abusive, when my son was 7. I remarried two years later. Ever since the divorce, my ex has constantly belittled me and my new husband to our three children, constantly asking them if my husband was abusing them, telling them they didn’t have to listen to their step-father or like him at all.
Law Enforcement and Child Protective Services kept showing up at our home nearly every other week because of my ex’s reports. They were asking questions and talking to my three kids. Every time, they left and said they found no evidence of any abuse and apologized for bothering us.
Since my ex remarried 4 years ago, he has little to no contact with his children, who are now 23,20 and 18. He called for his summer visitation and Christmas breaks, but my son, especially, has felt that he’s second-best to his father’s new family. He begs for any small bit of attention from his father.
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Anxiety Depression And Mental Disorders
If a person already suffers from anxiety, or other mental illnesses like post-traumatic stress disorder or social phobia, they may have a higher risk of developing bipolar disorder, according to the NIH. In addition, simply going through stressful experiences, or moments of grief, can increase a persons risk for bipolar disorder.
This may perhaps explain why 11 to 39 percent of bipolar patients also meet criteria for PTSD. Whether PTSD is a direct cause of bipolar disorder or vice versa, however, isnt completely understood. Its possible that traumatic experiences in childhood, such as physical or sexual abuse, can lead to bipolar disorder but its also possible that someone with bipolar disorder might be more likely to be exposed to traumatic experiences during a manic episode and thus develop PTSD later as a result of bipolar disorder.
In addition, studies have shown that children with attention-deficit disorder or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder are more likely to develop bipolar later on. But its important to recognize that ADHD and bipolar disorder are not the same people often confuse the symptoms of one for the other.